EG_English-12-(Core)_02-08-2022 a - Flip Book Pages 251-300 (2023)

under his head and his hat pulled down over He dropped the idea of sending for the sheriff, his eyes. but asked the stranger to leave at once. 27. What did the young girl notice about the 33. ‘The daughter stood there quite embarrassed stranger? What did she conclude? How did and hardly knew what to answer.’ What she make him feel confidence in her? embarrassed her? Why did she intercede for the vagabond? Ans. The stranger jumped up abruptly and seemed to be quite frightened. She looked at him Ans. The daughter had drawn plans to make things sympathetically, but the man still looked homelike and typical for Christmas for the afraid. She concluded that either he had stolen poor hungry wretch. She could not get away something or else he had escaped from jail. from this idea at once. She felt embarrassed She spoke to him in a very friendly manner when her father asked the man to get out. She to make him feel confidence in her. interceded for the vagabond to persuade her father to let him stay for Christmas. 28. What did the peddler of rattraps think while he was riding up to the manor house? 34. What arguments did the young girl give in favour of the stranger’s stay there? Ans. While he was riding up to the manor house he had evil forebodings. He questioned himself Ans. She said that the whole year long, the why he had taken that fellow’s money. He stranger walked around. He was probably not thought that he was sitting in the trap and welcomed or made to feel at home even at a would never get out of it. single place. He was chased away wherever he turned. He was always afraid of being 29. Why did the peddler derive pleasure from his arrested and cross-examined. She wanted him idea of the world as a rattrap? to enjoy a day of peace with them–just one in the whole year. Ans. The peddler was very happy with the idea of the world as a rattrap because he was never 35. “He only stared at the young girl in boundless given kind treatment by the world. He had amazement.” What made the man with the quite different feeling for it and loved to think rattraps react in this manner? ill of it by comparing it to a rattrap. Ans. The young girl told him after the Christmas 30. How did the ironmaster try to convince his dinner that the suit he wore was to be a daughter about the stranger? Christmas present from her father. He did not have to return it. If he wanted to spend Ans. He asked his daughter to have some patience. next Christmas Eve peacefully, without any She would see something different as soon as evil befalling him, he would be welcomed back the stranger got clean and dressed up. Last again. This amazed him. night he was naturally embarrassed. He asserted that tramp manners would fall away 36. “The young girl sat and hung her head even from him with tramp clothes. more dejectedly than usual.” What two reasons forced her to behave in this manner? 31. What impression did the well-groomed guest make? How did the ironmaster react and why? Ans. First, she had learned at the church that one of the old crofters of the ironworks had been Ans. He looked truly clean and well dressed. The robbed by a man who went around selling ironmaster did not seem pleased. He looked at rattraps. Second, her father taunted her and him with a contracted brow. It was because he held her responsible for letting that “fine had made a mistake in identifying the person fellow” into the house. in uncertain light at night. He demanded an explanation from the man. 37. Sum up the contents of the letter addressed to Miss Willmansson. 32. What did the ironmaster threaten to do after knowing the mistake? How did the stranger Ans. The stranger did not want her to be save himself? embarrassed at the Christmas season with a thief. As she had been nice to him as if he Ans. The ironmaster threatened to call in the were a captain, he would be nice to her as if sheriff. The stranger told him that the he were a real captain. He asked her to return sheriff might lock him up for dissembling. He the money to the old crofter. The rattrap was reminded the ironmaster that a day might a present from a rat who would have been come when he might get tempted, and then caught in the world’s rattrap if he had not he would be caught in the big rattrap of the world. The metaphor amused the ironmaster. 250 English CorE-Xii

been raised to captain. It was as captain that him. So, it gives him a great pleasure to think he got power to clear himself. ill of it. Ironically, he finds himself trapped like a rat when he steals the thirty kroner of 38. If the world is “nothing but a big rattrap” as the credulous crofter. Subsequently it leads the tramp stated in the story ‘The Rattrap’, him to Edla’s home where he receives nothing who might the rattrap peddler be? Discuss. except kindness. It is true that this bitter view of the world is his own subjective one. Ans. He was one of the people facing temptation In fact the world has no dearth of genuinely of the ‘bait’ dangled before him by the crofter kind people like the crofter, Edla and even in the form of the three knoner notes earned the ironmaster. All treat him kindly. Edla by selling the milk of his cow. Later on by believes in compassion and Christian values stealing the money he becomes like those who and eventually touches the goodness in him get trapped by the ‘bait’ for example a rat and and helped him see the world in a positive has to face the consequences of this theft. light. 39. Despite his philosophical insights, the 2. The peddler believed that the whole world is vagabond fails to resist temptations. What a rattrap. How did he himself get caught in would you attribute this to? Explain with the same? reference to any instance from the text. Ans. The sad and poor life of the peddler makes Ans. The peddler was an impoverished lonely man, him bitter. One day when he was thinking of begging around for food and shelter. He needed his rattraps, suddenly he was struck by an the money to sustain himself and find suitable idea that the whole world is nothing but a big shelter. Also, the world had ill-treated him rattrap. It just sets baits for people. The world since he was young. He did not feel any qualms offers riches, joys, shelter, food and clothing. in stealing from the crofter. They are just baits. As soon as anyone touches the bait, the rattrap closes in on him. Then 40. Do you think the story reinforces a stereotype everything comes to an end. that women are more trusting, forgiving and less practical than men? Comment with Ironically, the peddler himself becomes reference to Edla’s actions in the story. the rat. The peddler can’t overcome the temptation of stealing the bait of 30 kroners Ans. Th e sto ry do e s co m p a re t he soft an d of the hospitable crofter. Again the metaphor compassionate nature of Edla with the physical of the rattrap comes into his mind when the and pragmatic nature of the ironmaster who ironmaster invites him to his manor house. wants to send the peddler away when he The peddler doesn’t want to go there. It means realizes that the man was not his old friend voluntarily throwing himself into the lion’s Captain Von Stale. den. He surrenders when he is persuaded by Miss Willmansson to go there. 41. What might be the significance of setting the story’s events during Christmas? Justify Finally, the peddler feels himself released from your opinion the rattrap. It is due to the deep sympathy, kindness, love and understanding shown by Ans. The Christmas setting of the story highlights Miss Willmansson towards him. He raises the theme of the story, of giving and being himself above petty temptations. He would charitable during Christmas and the positive have been trapped in the world’s rattrap if he effect this can have on the reformation of had not been raised to a captain. That gave character. him strength to come out of that trap. III. Long Answer Questions 3. What is the theme of the story ‘The Rattrap’ ? How has this theme been developed? 1. The peddler thinks that the whole world is a rattrap. This view of life is true only of himself Ans. The theme of the story is that most human and of no one else in the story. Comment. beings are prone to fall into the trap of material benefit. However, every human Ans. The peddler doesn’t think kindly of the world being has an essential goodness that can be and its people. For him the world is a big awakened through understanding and love. rattrap to trap the people in. The luxuries of the world are the baits that tempt the people to thE rattraP 251 get trapped. The world has been very unkind to

A human being has the tendency to redeem did he react to the new situation? What does himself from dishonest ways. his reaction highlight? The theme is developed with the help of Ans. Having robbed his generous host, the peddler the metaphor of the rattrap. The peddler of felt quite pleased with his smartness. He did rattraps calls the world a big rattrap. The material benefits like riches and joys, shelter not feel any qualms of conscience that he had and food, heat and clothing are temptations that allure a person to fall into the rattrap abused the confidence reposed in him by the of the world exactly as the bait of cheese and pork attract a rat to fall into the rattrap. Once crofter. The selfish wretch thought only of his someone takes the bait, the world closes in on own safety. He realised the danger of being him and then everything is lost. caught by the police with the stolen thirty The peddler is tempted by the thirty kroners of the old crofter. He steals the money. kroner. Hence, he decided to discontinue Now he is afraid of being caught and moves through the woods. It is the kind, sympathetic, walking on the public highway and turn off loving and generous treatment given by Edla Willmansson that helps him get himself free the road, into the woods. from the rattrap of the world. During the first few hours the woods caused 4. Give an account of the peddler’s meeting with the old crofter. How does the peddler conduct him no difficulty. Later on, it became worse as himself? What light does this episode throw on human nature? it was a big and confusing forest. The paths twisted back and forth. He kept on walking Ans. One dark evening, the peddler reached a little but did not come to the end of the woods. He gray cottage by the roadside. He knocked realised that he had only been walking around on the door to ask shelter for the night. The in the same part of the forest. The forest closed owner, an old man without wife or child, in upon him like an impenetrate prison from welcomed him. He was happy to get someone which he could never escape. to talk to in his loneliness. He served him hot porridge for supper and gave him tobacco for The reaction of the peddler highlights the his pipe. Then he played cards with him till predicament of human nature. Temptations bed time. lead to evil. The fruits of evil seem pleasant at first, but they deprive man of his goodness The host told the peddler that in his days and push him into the maze of the world which of prosperity, he worked on land at Ramsjo holds a vice-like grip on him. Ironworks. Now his cow supported him. He sold her milk at the creamery everyday. He 6. (i) ‘The blacksmiths glanced only casually and showed the peddler the thirty kronor notes he indifferently at the intruder.’ got as payment that month. Then he hung the leather pouch on a nail in the window frame. (ii) “The ironmaster did not follow the example Next morning, the crofter went to milk the of the blacksmiths who had hardly deigned to cow, and the peddler went away. However, he look at the stranger.” What do these attitudes returned after half an hour, broke the window reveal? How does the forge-episode help to pane, took the money out of the leather pouch develop the story? What is its implication? and hung it back on the nail. Ans. The blacksmiths display the typical attitude This episode shows that in loneliness, human of manual workers and labourers for whom beings crave for company, for social bonding. work is the first priority and parasites on Secondly, temptations can overpower the human society are dragged on the fruit of their greatest philosopher. The peddler who calls labour. The master blacksmith nods a haughty the world a rattrap is himself tempted by consent without honouring the intruder with a thirty kronor. single word. Evidently, he regards the tramp as insignificant. 5. How did the peddler feel after robbing the crofter? What course did he adopt and how The ironmaster, who is on his nightly round of inspection, behaves differently. He walks 252 English CorE-Xii closely up to him and looks him over carefully. Then he removes his slouch hat to get a better view of his face. In the uncertain light of the furnace he mistakes the stranger for his old regimental comrade and requests him to go home with him. When the stranger declines the invitation, the ironmaster sends his

daughter to persuade him to spend Christmas polite way of address help her. She tells her Eve with them. Thus, the forge episode helps father that nothing about the man shows that to develop the story. once he was an educated man. The episode highlights the difference in the She believes in the spirit of Christmas reactions of various persons to the same set and intercedes on behalf of the stranger to of circumstances. This reveals the shades of persuade her father to let him stay and be human nature. It shows that even the person happy. She first makes a passionate plea and with best discernment may commit an error then argues that they should not chase away of judgement. a person they had invited themselves and promised him Christmas cheer. 7. Bring out the contrast in the ironmaster’s attitude and behaviour towards the stranger Her dejection on learning that the peddler with before and after he realises his mistake. rattraps was a thief reflects her sensitiveness. The gift of the captain makes her happy. Ans. The ironmaster is moved to see his old It is her noble action that helps a thief regimental comrade in a pitiable state. He redeem himself. In short, she is an intelligent, considers it a mistake on his part to have affectionate and kind young girl. resigned from the regiment. He insists that his old comrade will go home with him. As 9. Comment on the ending of the story ‘The the stranger declines the invitation, he thinks Rattrap’. that the man feels embarrassed because of his miserable clothing. He explains that he Ans. The story ‘The Rattrap’ has a very beautiful does not have such a fine home that he cannot ending. It helps us to realise that all is not show himself there. He requests the stranger lost for human beings who are prone to fall to provide company to him and his daughter into the trap of material benefits. It is the for Christmas. When the stranger refuses protagonist of the story—the peddler with thrice, he sends his daughter, with a big fur the rattraps—who coins the metaphor of the coat to persuade him. Just before breakfast on rattrap, falls himself in it on being tempted Christmas Eve, he thinks of feeding him well and ultimately redeems himself by renouncing and providing him same honourable piece of the temptation. work. His admission that he had been the thief, His behaviour undergoes a U-turn when he and the treatment he got as a captain, show looks at the well-groomed stranger and realises how love and understanding can transform his mistake. He expresses his displeasure with even a depraved soul. The story thus comes a a wrinkled brow and demands an explanation full circle with the ending. All questions are from the man. Though the peddler defends answered and no loose tags remain hanging. himself well saying he never pretended to be someone else, the ironmaster calls him The ending also pays tribute to the goodness dishonest and threatens to hand him over to of humanity here exhibited through Miss Edla the sheriff. When the metaphor of world being Willmansson. The happy ending also arouses a rattrap softens him a bit, he asks the peddler our optimism and belief in the essential to quit at once. goodness of man and other human virtues. Thus, it serves to inspire the readers to do 8. What impression do you form of Edla on noble acts. reading the story ‘The Rattrap’ ? 10. Do you think the title of the story ‘The Rattrap’ Ans. Miss Edla Willmansson is the eldest daughter is appropriate? Give reasons to support your of the owner of the Ramsjo Ironworks. She is answer. not pretty, but modest and quite shy. She is quite obedient and visits the forge at the behest Ans. The story has an appropriate and suggestive of her father. She has a wonderful power of title. It at once draws our attention to the observation and takes quick judgement. From central theme—the whole world is a big the stranger’s frightened looks, she concludes rattrap. This metaphor helps us to understand that he is either a thief or a runaway convict. the human predicament. All the good things She uses her skills of persuasion to make the of the world are nothing but baits to tempt a stranger agree to accompany her home. Her person to fall into the rattrap. Through the compassionate looks, friendly manner and character of the peddler, the writer drives home the idea that most human beings are thE rattraP 253

prone to fall into the trap of material benefits. the modern man hankers after money and has become commercial-minded. People are The story begins with rattraps and ends with not afraid of the Almighty. They wish to a rattrap as a present for someone who has accumulate riches by hook or by crook. They helped a rat to get free from the rattrap. Even have no respect for humanity and moral the middle of the story revolves round the values. The social norms and time-tested rattrap. The actions of the peddler after he principles bemoan somewhere in a corner. steals thirty kronor of the old crofter reveal The mortals of this computer age focus only the inner conflicts, tensions and lack of peace on pecuniary gains. They are desirous of of a person who touches the bait of temptation. becoming rich overnight. And it is sure that Renunciation of the temptation helps in no one can make easy money without resorting redemption. to corruption. One should always remember that those who are honest get respect in Thus, we conclude that the title is apt and society and feel themselves satisfied. They significant. don’t have to feel guilty. But those who are corrupt hide themselves behind the veils when 11. Edla is able to bring about a change of heart caught. A person should always be honest in the peddler. Justify this with reference to and sincere. The factory workers, farmers, the story, ‘The Rattrap’. What qualities helped teachers and poor artisans live an honest life her bring about this transformation? and are appreciated everywhere. Freud rightly proclaimed in his letter to Wilhelm Fliess that Ans. Edla is the daughter of the ironmaster. She ‘Being entirely honest with oneself is a good does not force herself upon the peddler. exercise.’ A few honest men are better than Instead she tries to persuade him that he numerous bad ones. should spend Christmas eve with them. Her friendliness wins his trust in humanity. Later 13. It is rightly said that the crown and glory of she persuaded her father not to send the life is character. Alphonse Karr, a French peddler away because his identity is already journalist, said, “Every man has three revealed to them. Consequently they invite characters: that which he shows, that which him on the Christmas Eve. Edla also tells he has, and that which he thinks he has.” him that if he wishes so, he is welcomed again Substantiate the saying taking ideas from the next year on the Christmas Eve. Her kindness following expressions: and hospitality awakens his conscience. And this brings about a change in the peddler. He “…It was quite honest, either. You must admit is reformed now. The realisation which the that, and I should not be surprised if the sheriff peddler experiences is that there is a way out would like to have something to say in the of the trap. Ultimately, he decided to return matter.” the thirty kroners of the old crofter. Ans. “The crown and glory of life is character 12. Honesty is considered the best policy for earning one’s bread and butter. Stealing is a When wealth is lost, nothing is lost; sin and a punishable act. Vagabonds tend to forget this essential goodness. Elucidate the When health is lost, something is lost; dictum in the light of the following lines: When character is lost, everything is lost”. “He made them himself at odd moments, from the material he got by begging in the stores or Channing said that the great hope of society at the big farms. But even so, the business was is individual character. Character plays a not especially profitable, so he had to resort to pivotal role in the life of a human being. It is both begging and petty thievery to keep body as significant for a man as a crown for a king. and soul together.” It is the glory of a man’s life. Character reflects the traits and personality of a person. A man of Ans. Honest Means of Livelihood character retains moral strength and faces the music of life bravely. A man is judged by his Every human being has to earn his bread and character. A person who has a good character butter. Means vary from person to person, but one has to face many obstacles and odd situations in life. These means can be fair or foul, honest or dishonest. Unfortunately, 254 English CorE-Xii

is respected and honoured in society. It is often to any extent to avenge his seclusion. Solitude said that our lot depends on our character. One rises in life in proportion to the strength and melancholy are synonymous to each other. of one’s character. Character gives self- satisfaction to a person. He can lead a happy Mother Teresa has described loneliness in and contended life. He accumulates wealth in a fitting manner. She said, “Loneliness and heaven instead of building treasures on the the feeling of being unwanted is the most Earth. It is only character that distinguishes terrible poverty.” Each individual needs man from beasts. Goethe remarked that love, affection and company. The victims of “Talent is nurtured in solitude; character is solitude and loneliness never feel themselves formed in the stormy billows of the world.” gratified. They never feel themselves the part of the main stream. It breeds negativity and “Not in the clamor of the crowded street, animosity. They become hostile towards the fellow human beings. The repercussions of Not in the shouts and plaudits of the throng, loneliness are catastrophic and disastrous. But is ourselves, are triumph and defeat. 15. Voltaire has rightly remarked that ‘Love truth, but pardon error’. It is by forgiving that one —Longfellow is forgiven. Sympathy is a divine virtue. It is indispensable for a philanthropist. Elucidate 14. Man is a gregarious animal. Aristotle wrote in the dictum taking ideas from the following Politics, “He who is unable to live in society, expressions. or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god.” “Since you have been so nice to me all day long, Loneliness gnaws a man from within. Write as if I was a captain, I want to be nice to you, in an article on the topic mentioned above in return, as if I was a real captain—for I do not your own words. You can take ideas from the want you to be embarrassed at this Christmas following lines: season by a thief; but you can give back the money to the old man on the roadside...” “…he knocked on the door to ask shelter for the night. Nor was he refused. Instead of the sour Ans. The Bible proclaims that ‘Blessed are the faces which ordinarily met him, the owner, merciful; for they shall obtain mercy’. Love who was an old man. without wife or child, begets love and hatred begets hatred. People was happy to get someone to talk to in his in this world have a reciprocal relationship. loneliness.” They reciprocate the thing they receive. It is a universally accepted aphorism that ‘To Ans. Loneliness: A Terrible Moment err is human, to forgive, divine’. Sympathy has a great power. A sympathetic person Enduring loneliness requires perseverance receives the blessings of the destitute whom and strength of mind. The state of alienation he helps or forgives. People can’t imagine may depress a person. He may become insane. the incredible power of sympathy. A person’s Everybody cannot bear the pangs of leading kind acts and words may save many precious a lonely life. Seclusion irritates a mortal as lives. One must not forget that those who it is known to us that man is a gregarious sympathise with others get inner satisfaction. animal. He needs company to share his views It awakens the affection of a human heart. It and thoughts. It is also said that solitude leaves an indelible impression even on the is the playfield of satan. Man gets diverted most rugged nature. Its results are better and takes recourse to illegal ways. The Bible than a king’s power. It helps a man in his says that ‘woe to him that is alone when he endeavour to elevate his fellow human beings falleth; for he hath not another to help him from a state of poverty and distress. Dr. up.’ An alienated person leads a miserable Samuel Johnson averred that the wretched and pitiable life. Survival at a deserted place have no compassion. When a man suffers becomes next to impossible for a human being. himself, it is called misery; when he suffers Solitude gives vent to the feelings of enmity in the suffering of another, it is called pity. against mankind. A depressed person may go Forgiveness is, undoubtedly, a divine quality. thE rattraP 255

The philanthropists should inculcate the habit his letter, oh her tears of joys filled my heart of forgiving others in their character. with so much admiration for her . Such a kind wonderful young lady. “Sweet mercy is nobility’s true badge” Speaker 1–Absolutely. But I wonder, what if 16. How would you compare the peddler’s action that vagabond had run away with the silver in relation to the crofter and Edla? spoons? Would you speak so glowingly of Ms. Willmansson then? Our master’s daughter Would you say kindness does not always was a bit too gullible. Wouldn’t you say? beget kindness, and that the conditions for receiving kindness are important for it to truly Speaker 2–But she did that was right. That transform people? Elaborate? must count for something. It’s Christmas, and she helped that poor man. It didn’t matter Ans. Though both Edla and the crofter showed what he did. Surely the choice of right and kindness towards the peddler, he was wrong does not depend on the outcome. transformed after meeting the former because of several reasons: Firstly, the crofter had Speaker 1–Wouldn’t it? I should jolly well been a lonely man who had invited the peddler think so. into his house and offered him food and shelter and also played and smoked with him but it How would you respond to the questions raised had not been a completely selfless act because in this conversation in relation to the story? he had benefitted from the peddler too. He had Write your response in the form of an entry in helped the crofter to deal with his loneliness your daily journal. and had to listen to his stories. Moreover the crofter had also shown off his money Ans. 26th of Dec., 19XX and thereby tempted the poor impoverished peddler. Edla on the other hand had given him My respect for Edla has increased tenfold. I a good time by giving him food and clothes and don’t think there are many people like her in let him sleep as long as he had wanted. She this world. The fact that she truly believes in had pleaded her father to let him stay even the equality of people is evident. She respects though he had appeared to have deceived the every human being whether a captain or a family. Most importantly she had treated him peddler. It is this non-judgemental attitude with respect and as an honoured guest which of hers that enabled the change in character had brought about the change in the peddler. of the peddler. For the first time the peddler must have felt important, of some consequence 17. Imagine that you overhead the following and hence did not want to fall back into his snippet of an interaction between the valet thieving ways, hiding from people and being and the housekeeper at the ironmaster’s treated as the scum of the Earth. I think Edla mansion at the end of the story. did the right thing and I support her act of trusting the peddler. It is because of this a Speaker 1-Trust is difficult choice, which may man was redeemed and reclaimed I am sure or may not be rewarded. the peddler will surprise us with his noble behavior in future. That will be the best way Speaker 2–Yes, indeed. Ms Willmansson really to pay Edla for her faith in him and in the believed in that fellow, didn’t she? And he innate goodness of human nature. didn’t disappoint. She was so happy reading 256 English CorE-Xii

5 Indigo —Louis Fischer About the Author Summary Louis Fischer (1896 – 1970) was a Jewish-American Indigo is written by Louis Fischer, who narrates journalist. Among his works were a contribution Gandhiji’s struggle at Champaran for the poor people. to the ex-Communist treatise The God that Failed The peasants at Champaran were sharecroppers with (1949), Life of Mahatma Gandhi (1982), as well as the British planters. The peasants produced Indigo Life of Lenin, which won the 1965 National Book on 15% of the land area and according to an old Award in History and Biography. The following is an agreement, they had to give it as rent to the landlords. excerpt from his book The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. It was around 1917, the Germans started developing The book has been reviewed as one of the best synthetic Indigo and this mitigated the requirement books ever written on Gandhi by Times Educational of Indigo for British planters. In order to release supplement. the peasants from the 15 per cent old agreement, the British landlords demanded compensation from Theme them. Most of the illiterate peasants agreed to it except a few. During that period, Gandhiji appeared The leadership shown by Mahatma Gandhi to secure in Champaran. justice for oppressed people through convincing He looked into the matter, stood by the side of the argumentation and negotiation. poor peasants and fought a long battle of one year, managing to get justice for them. This made the Justification of the Title peasants courageous and made them aware of their fundamental rights. Gandhiji’s work at Champaran The title ‘Indigo’ focuses our attention on the issue of wasn’t just confined to political or economic struggle. exploitation of indigo sharecroppers at the hands of He also worked on social issues like arrangements for cruel British planters. The British compelled them education, health and hygiene for the families of the through a long term agreement to plant indigo on poor peasants. He taught them lessons of self-reliance 15 per cent of their land and surrender the entire and self-dependence. harvest as rent. After the development of synthetic indigo by Germany, the British planters extracted CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL money from the peasants as compensation for being released from the 15 per cent agreement. Role of Rajkumar Shukla The peasants who wanted their money back filed 1. Poor, emaciated peasant from Champaran. civil suits. Rajkumar Shukla persuaded Gandhi to take up the case of Indigo sharecroppers. So indigo 2. Contacted Gandhi in 1916 in Lucknow. sharecropping exemplifies the injustice of the British and the Indians’ submission to British authority. 3. Gandhi dismissed him. The Champaran movement that centred on indigo sharecropping led to social and cultural upliftment 4. Shukla came to complain about the injustice and of the peasants. Thus, the title ‘Indigo’ is highly the landlord system in Bihar. suggestive and appropriate. 5. Shukla followed Gandhi to Cawnpore later at Message Calcutta. The story ‘Indigo’ highlights the unequal economic 6. Impressed by the sharecroppers tenacity and system that existed during colonial British rule. story Gandhi relented. It resulted in Indian peasants suffering, while the British planters exploited them. It also highlights The Issue the importance of Gandhi’s decision to take up their 1. Arable land in Champaran divided into estates case, which exposed the unjust system. owned by Englishmen, worked by Indian tenants. 2. Chief commercial crop indigo. 3. Tenants to plant on 15% indigo. 4. To surrender entire indigo as rent. 5. Synthetic indigo in market. 257

6. Landlords force new agreements. 2. Understands the issue e.g., meets Kriplani/ 7. Ask for 15% compensation. lawyers/peasants. 8. Peasants resist, widespread unrest. 3. Connects with masses. How Gandhi reached Champaran 1. Went to Muzaffarpur with Shukla. 4. Organised e.g., civil disobedience plan. 2. Obtained complete information. 3. Discussed with Kriplani. 5. Fair leader e.g. won lawyers’ support. 4. Met lawyers, chided them, understood legal angle. 6. Visionary e.g., improves social, cultural 5. Met peasants sensed unrest. backwardness of Champaran. 6. Realised peasant fear-striken. 7. Feels he should arm them with the tool of Type-I. RefeRence To conTexT courage, fearlessness. Read the extracts given below and attempt the Role of Lawyers questions that follow: 1. They represented cases in courts, collected fee. 2. Gandhi criticised them for duping/misguiding 1. When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram the peasants. in Sevagram, in central India, he said, “I will tell 3. They gave legal support. you how it happened that I decided to urge the 4. However, they were non-committed if he was departure of the British. It was in 1917.” He had arrested. gone to the December 1916 annual convention of 5. Gandhi appealed for justice for sharecroppers the Indian National Congress party in Lucknow. when arrested. There were 2,301 delegates and many visitors. 6. Lawyers feel guilty of desertion. During the proceedings, Gandhi recounted, “a 7. They supported Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience peasant came up to me looking like any other Movement. peasant in India, poor and emaciated, and said, 8. They helped him file grievances against landlords. ‘I am Rajkumar Shukla. I am from Champaran, and I want you to come to my district’!’’ Gandhi Steps taken by Gandhi had never heard of the place. It was in the 1. Approached British landlord association. foothills of the towering Himalayas, near the 2. Commissioner, cold shouldered. kingdom of Nepal. 3. Proceeded to Motihari, got mass support from peasants, continued investigation. Questions 4. Served official notice to leave Champaran. 5. Signed, said would disobey the order. (i) Gandhi had decided to urge the departure of 6. Served summons, Motihari black with peasants. the British. Which episode in his life does he 7. Peasants demonstrate outside courtroom. refer to here? 8. Officials powerless, government baffled. (a) His forming the Natal Indian Congress in 9. Gandhi was encouraged by mass support. Africa. (b) His Satyagraha Movement. 10. Court arrest, says obeying voice of conscience. (c) The Champaran Sharecroppers Movement. 11. Convinces lawyers to join movement. (d) The Quit India Movement. 12. Continues to collect legal evidence. 13. Government forced to set up Inquiry Commission. (ii) Who came to see Gandhi at the annual 14. Meeting, deadlock over compensation. convention in 1916 of the Indian National 15. Agrees to 25%, landlords learned they were not Congress Party? (a) Jawaharlal Nehru above the law, peasants got courage. (b) Kriplani 16. Battle of Champaran won. (c) Rajkumar Shukla (d) Rajendra Prasad Qualities of Gandhi 1. Appreciates loyalty/commitment. (iii) What did the poor peasant want from Gandhi? (a) To go with him to Champaran. 258 English CorE-Xii (b) To travel with Gandhi. (c) To be Gandhi’s man-servant. (d) To help Gandhi in his work.

(iv) What personality of Shukla impressed Gandhi Situation 1 Situation 2 Situation 3 Situation 4 that he visited Champaran with him? Tariq is Sunita The bank Harpreet (a) Shukla was irritating. unable to cannot get a employees was stuck (b) Shukla was very demanding. manage the job because started between (c) Shukla was resolute. front-end she has no protesting deciding (d) Shukla was a coward. and the experience against whether backend and she their to go to (v) What picture of peasants all over the country forums at can’t receding the USA is represented in the extract? his company have any annual or the UK without any experience salary for higher (vi) The person indicated as ‘I’ in the first line of support. because she and other studies. the extract is .... has no job. incentives. (a) Raj Kumar Shukla (a) Situation 1 (b) Situation 2 (b) Louis Fischer (c) Situation 3 (d) Situation 4 (c) Gandhiji (d) J.B. Kriplani (iii) Based on the given context, choose the option Answers (i) (c) The Champaran Sharecroppers Movement. that exemplifies a deceitful extortion, out of (ii) (c) Rajkumar Shukla the examples given below. (iii) (a) To go with him to Champaran. (iv) (c) Shukla was resolute. 1. The artisans 2. The head of the (v) The extract reflects that the Indian peasants demonstrated artisan union are generally poor and emaciated. for their rights, pretended to address peacefully, on the all the problems (vi) (b) Louis Fischer streets. faced by them. 2. They thought he would demand repayment in 3. The head of the 4. The artisans in full of the money which they had illegally and artisan union came Hafrgunj decided with goons and took to sell their wares deceitfully extorted from the sharecroppers. all the assets of the directly to the poor artisans. government outlets. He asked only 50 per cent. “There he seemed adamant,” writes Reverend J.Z. Hodge, a British missionary in Champaran who observed the (a) Option 1 (b) Option 2 (c) Option 3 (d) Option 4 entire episode at close range. “Thinking probably that he would not give way, the representative of (iv) The deadlock broke because (a) Gandhi’s settlement offer was worth the planters offered to refund to the extent of 25 considering. per cent, and to his amazement Mr. Gandhi took (b) All commission members agreed to adopt the representative’s offer. him at his word, thus breaking the deadlock.” (c) Reverend J.Z. Hodge’s intervention brought This settlement was adopted unanimously by both parties together. the commission. (CBSE) (d) The sharecroppers refused to be convinced by the commission. Questions (i) Gandhi knew that he would not get an agreement on the demand for 50% repayment. Choose the option that offers the correct (v) What character of Gandhi is reflected in the justification for the assumption made above. extract? (a) He had anticipated the negotiating tactics (a) He was an excellent negotiator. of the planter’s representative. (b) He never missed the opportunity to settle (b) He had been informed about the depleting the issue. funds of the planters. (c) He had taken the advice of the Reverend on (c) He was never cooperative with the British officials. board. (d) He had evaluated the commission’s attitude (d) Both (a) and (b) towards Indians. (ii) Following are four real-life situations. Choose (vi) Who does ‘they’ refer to in the first line of the the option that perfectly describes a deadlock. extract? inDigo 259

Answers (c) T h e y c o u l d n o t g e t a l o n g w i t h t h e (i) (a) He had anticipated the negotiating tactics sharecroppers. of the planter’s representative. (d) The sharecroppers had a lot of complaints (ii) (b) Situation 2 about the lawyers. (iii) (c) Option 3 (iv) (b) All commission members agreed to adopt the (iv) Why did Gandhi think that taking these cases to court did little good? representative’s offer. (a) These were the cases that could not be fought about. (v) (d) Both (a) and (b) (b) The lawyers found these cases too baffling. (vi) In the first line of the extract ‘they’ refers to the (c) The peasants were so crushed and fear- stricken that law courts were useless. British planters. (d) The peasants were only spending money and getting no results. 3. The news of Gandhi’s advent and of the nature of his mission spread quickly through (v) How did Gandhi react on hearing the fees Muzzafarpur and to Champaran. Sharecroppers received from the peasants? from Champaran began arriving on foot and by conveyance to see their champion. Muzzafarpur (vi) How did the peasants refer to Gandhi? lawyers called on Gandhi to brief him; they frequently represented peasant groups in court; (a) Mahatma (b) Bapu they told him about their cases and reported the size of their fee. Gandhi chided the lawyers for (c) Gandhi ji (d) Mohandas collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. He said, ‘‘I have come to the conclusion that we should Answers stop going to law courts. Taking such cases to (i) (d) The sharecroppers wanted to see their the courts does little good. Where the peasants champion who would fight for them. are so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts are useless. The real relief for them is to be free from (ii) (a) To brief him about their cases and the size fear.’’ of their fee. Questions (iii) (b) They were collecting big fees from the sharecroppers. (i) Why did sharecroppes from Champaran come to Muzzafarpur? (iv) (c) The peasants were so crushed and fear- (a) Everyone wanted to see the newcomer. stricken that law courts were useless. (b) Gandhi was put in prison the moment he arrived in Muzzafarpur. (v) When Gandhi heard that the lawyers had taken (c) Gandhi made a request of wanting to talk fees from the peasants, he chided them. to the sharecroppers. (d) The sharecroppers wanted to see their (vi) (a) Mahatma champion who would fight for them. 4. Most of the arable land in the Champaran (ii) Why did the Muzzafarpur lawyers think it was district was divided into large estates owned by necessary to meet Gandhi? Englishmen and worked by Indian tenants. The (a) To brief him about their cases and the size chief commercial crop was indigo. The landlords of their fee. compelled all tenants to plant three twentieths (b) To welcome Gandhi into their lawyer’s club or 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and as he was a lawyer. surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. This (c) To tell Gandhi about the British landlord was done by long-term contract. Presently, the and the sharecropping method. landlords learned that Germany had developed (d) To ask Gandhi what he intended to do for synthetic indigo. They, thereupon, obtained the sharecroppers. agreements from the sharecroppers to pay them compensation for being released from the 15 per (iii) Why was Gandhi not happy with the lawyers? cent arrangement. (a) They were doing nothing to help the sharecroppers. Questions (b) They were collecting big fees from the sharecroppers. (i) How were the estates of Chamaparan managed? (a) By sharecropping. 260 English CorE-Xii (b) By growing indigo. (c) By the government. (d) By big companies. (ii) How did the tenants pay their rent to the landlords?

(a) They paid the monthly due by cash. not a loyalty to abstractions; it was a loyalty to (b) They gave 15% of the crop they grew to the living, human beings. In everything Gandhi did, landlords. (c) They grew indigo on 15% of their holdings moreover, he tried to mould a new free Indian and gave the whole indigo harvest as rent. who could stand on his own feet and thus make (d) They shared 50% of the crop with the India free. (CBSE) landlord. Questions (iii) Why did the landlords no longer want them to grow indigo? (i) Choose the option listing the sentence that is (a) People were no longer interested in indigo. the most appropriate example of an ‘act of (b) Germany had developed synthetic indigo. defiance’, from the following: (c) Indigo cultivation was very difficult. (d) Farmers all over the world started growng She picked up the telephone terrified of what indigo. was about to come. She could hear nobody on the other side. Meanwhile, there was a thud (iv) How did the sharecroppers get released from at the door loud enough to scare her. Curious growing indigo? as she was, she wanted to open it as soon as (a) The landlords asked them not to grow indigo possible. Her mother tried to stop her several anymore. times, but she went ahead, nevertheless. (b) Settlement made between the British and Gandhi. (a) She picked up the telephone terrified of (c) Excess rain started spoiling the crops. what was about to come. (d) The sharecroppers paid compensation to the landlords. (b) Meanwhile, there was a thud at the door loud enough to scare her. (v) What was peculiar about the arable lands of Champaran? (c) Curious as she was, she wanted to open it (a) Indigo was cultivated on the entire land. as soon as possible. (b) Indigo was cultivated on 15% of the contract lands. (d) Her mother tried to stop her several times (c) Only the small farmers were involved in the but she went ahead nevertheless. indigo cultivation. (d) The British never allowed the tenants to (ii) Choose the correct option with reference to the cultivate indigo on the contract lands. two statements given below. (vi) What was unfair about the agreements obtained Statement 1: His was not a loyalty to by the planters from the sharecroppers? abstractions; it was a loyalty to living, human beings. Answers (i) (a) By sharecropping. Statement 2: Gandhi was a humanitarian at (ii) (c) They grew indigo on 15% of their holdings heart. and gave the whole indigo harvest as rent. (a) Statement 1 is the cause of Statement 2. (iii) (b) Germany had developed synthetic indigo. (b) Statement 2 is the effect of Statement 1. (iv) (b) Settlement made between the British and (c) S t a t e m e n t 2 c a n b e i n f e r r e d f r o m Gandhi. Statement 1. (v) (b) Indigo was cultivated on 15% of the contract (d) S t a t e m e n t 1 a n d S t a t e m e n t 2 a r e lands. independent of each other. (vi) The sharecroppers were forced to grow indigo, (iii) The given extract DOES NOT talk about which was not fair. (a) details of the daily problems faced by human beings. 5. But Champaran did not begin as an act of defiance. It grew out of an attempt to alleviate (b) efforts to relieve suffering of the common the distress of large numbers of poor peasants. people. This was the typical Gandhi pattern — his politics were intertwined with the practical, (c) the reason for the occurrence of Champaran. day-to-day problems of the millions. His was (d) Gandhi’s principles in the field of politics. (iv) Which option showcases an example of action (A) result (R) from the passage? (1) A = defiance (2) A = free Indians R = poor peasants R = free India inDigo 261

(3) A = free India (4) A = defiance (d) He asked the landlords to come to a better R = defiance R = free Indians understanding with the tenants. (a) Option 1 (b) Option 2 (ii) Who represented the peasants in the commission (c) Option 3 (d) Option 4 which was appointed Lieutenant-Governor? (v) Why is Champaran famous? (iii) What evidence did the official inquiry bring out? (vi) Tick the philosophy that Gandhiji did not (a) The farmers had not paid any commission ascribe to— to the landlords. (a) upliftment of the poor (b) The landlords had indeed exploited the (b) establishing schools for the illiterate masses sharecroppers. (c) enhancing the health and hygiene (d) using villagers to portray his power and (c) The sharecroppers did not want to be released from growing indigo. status Answers (d) The landlords and the sharecroppers had their vested interest. (i) (d) Her mother tried to stop her several times but she went ahead nevertheless. (iv) How much refund did Gandhi agree to? (a) The complete 100% of the commissoin (ii) (c) Statement 2 can be inferred from (b) 75% of the commission Statement 1. (c) 50% of the commission (d) 25% of the commission (iii) (a) details of the daily problems faced by human beings. (v) Gandhi represented the peasants in the inquiry because: (iv) (b) Option 2 (v) Champaran is famous for the first Satyagrah (a) the peasants had faith in him. (b) he himself was a lawyer. Movement in 1917. (c) he was a mass leader. (d) he could speak better English. (vi) (d) using villagers to portray his power and status 6. Gandhi had four protracted interviews with the (vi) Gandhiji had expected that he would be back Lieutenant-Governor who, as a result, appointed an official commission of inquiry into the indigo from Champaran in _________ . sharecroppers’ situation. The commission consisted of landlords, government officials, (a) a few days (b) two weeks and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants. Gandhi remained in Champaran for (c) a few months (d) one week an initial uninterrupted period of seven months and then again for several shorter visits. The Answers visit, undertaken casually on the entreaty of an unlettered peasant in the expectation that it (i) (a) He appointed an official commission of would last a few days, occupied almost a year of Gandhi’s life. The official inquiry assembled a inquiry into the indigo situation. crushing mountain of evidence against the big planters, and when they saw this they agreed, in (ii) Gandhi alone represented that commission. principle, to make refunds to the peasants. “But how much must we pay?” they asked Gandhi.” (iii) (b) The landlords had indeed exploited the sharecroppers. Questions (iv) (d) 25% of the commission (v) (a) the peasants had faith in him. (vi) (a) a few days Type II. TexT-Based QuesTIons (i) What did the Governor do after four protracted I. Multiple Choice Questions interviews with the Lieutenant-Governor? 1. In the light of the following statement, pick (a) He appointed an official commission of the option that lists characteristics of Gandhi. inquiry into the indigo situation. “Gandhi never contented himself with large (b) He assured Gandhi that he would talk to political or economic solutions. the landlords. He saw the cultural and social backwardness (c) He called the landlords to have a talk with in the Champaran villagers and wanted to do them. something about it immediately. 262 English CorE-Xii

1. pragmatic 2. obedient 10. Who received Gandhi at the Muzaffarpur station? 3. compassionate 4. philanthropic (a) Shukla (b) J.B Kriplani 5. patient 6. dramatic (c) Rajendra Prasad (d) Nehru (a) 1, 3, 6 (b) 2,4,5 (c) 1,3,4 (b) 2,4,6 11. Gandhi____ the lawyers for collecting big fees from the sharecroppers 2. Complete the statement about the form of the (a) condoned (b) rebuffed chapter, ‘Indigo’. (c) chided (d) admired The chapter ‘Indigo’ is _________ a Louis 12. What were the places visited by Gandhi Fischer book. between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran? (a) a preface to (b) the blurb for (c) the foreword of (d) an excerpt from (a) Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna, Muzaffarpur 3. Gandhi’s protest in Champaran is most (b) Calcutta, Patna, Gaya, Muzaffarnagar appropriately a great model of (c) Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Gaya, Calcutta, Patna, Muzaffarpur (a) power (b) leadership (d) Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Patna and (c) charity (d) sponsorship Muzaffarnagar 4. When did Gandhiji go to Lucknow? 13. What did the peasants pay the British landlords as rent? (a) December 1917 (b) October 1916 (a) 25% of the crop (c) February 1917 (b) Indigo (d) December 1916 (c) 50% of their produce 5. What did he go to Lucknow for? (d) 10% of their indigo produce (a) to attend the annual convention of the INC 14. What did the British landlords want from the (b) to meet Rajendra Prasad peasants after synthetic indigo was developed? (c) to look into the sharecropper’s problems (a) indigo as rent (d) to go to Champaran via Lucknow (b) 15% of produce 6. What was the full name of the peasant from (c) money as compensation Champaran? (d) a new settlement (a) J.B Shukla 15. What would be the impact of synthetic indigo? (a) prices of natural indigo would go down (b) Rajkumar Shukla (b) sharecroppers would lose their land (c) Ramkumar Shukla (c) british landlords would trouble them (d) Roopkumar Shukla further 7. In 1917, Gandhi and Shukla boarded a train (d) demand for natural indigo would increase in Calcutta for 16. Where is Champaran district situated? (a) Patna (b) Ahmedabad (a) in the south west of Orissa (c) Cawnpore (d) Champaran (b) in the foothills of the Himalayas in Bihar 8. Shukla led Gandhi to the house of a lawyer (c) in the north east of Orissa who later became the President of India. He was (d) in the south of Bihar (a) J.B Kriplani 17. What did the peasants of Champaran grow? (a) Wheat (b) Rice (b) Rajendra Prasad (c) Cotton (d) Indigo (c) Zakir Hussain 18. Why was Gandhi not permitted to draw water (d) Mahadev Desai from Rajendra Prasad’s well? 9. Gandhi decided to go first to ____ to obtain (a) the servant thought Gandhi was another complete information about the conditions of peasant Champaran (b) as Rajendra Prasad was not at home (a) Patna (b) Calcutta (c) Gandhi looked like a vagabond (c) Muzaffarpur (d) Lucknow (d) Gandhi was a Harijan inDigo 263

19. How did Gandhi begin his mission in 27. What was the beginning of liberation from fear Champaran? of the British? (a) he chided the lawyers (a) the people gathered in large numbers (b) he tried to get the facts (c) he met the peasants (b) the support of lawyers (d) he met the commissioner (c) gandhi’s presence 20. What happened when Gandhi visited the (d) the prevailing laws secretary of British landlord’s association? (a) the secretary proceeded to bully him 28. The magistrate asked Gandhi to furnish bail (b) the secretary advised him forthwith to for _____ minutes leave Tirhut (c) the secretary said that they could not give (a) 30 (b) 60 any information to an outsider (d) the secretary was very helpful (c) 90 (d) 120 29. Gandhi was informed by the magistrate that the case (a) had been dropped 21. What did the British Official commissioner (b) had been postponed advise Gandhi? (c) was a weak one (a) to leave Tirhut (d) would be heard immediately (b) to proceed to Motihari (c) to go to the Secretary of British Landlords 30. Who were ready to follow Gandhi into jail? Association (a) peasants (b) lawyers (c) shukla (d) J.B. Kriplani (d) to consult lawyers 31. How many peasants deposed? 22. After Tirhut, where did Gandhi go? (a) about a hundred (b) about a thousand (a) Lucknow (b) Motihari (c) about ten thousand (c) Cawnpore (d) Ahmedabad (d) about hundred thousand 23. Who accompanied Gandhi to the Capital of 32. Gandhi was summoned by ______ the Lt. Champaran? Governor (a) Rajendra Prasad (b) Shukla (a) Sir Edward Gait (b) Sir Henry Gait (c) several lawyers (d) crowd of peasants (c) Sir Richard Andrews(d) SirFreerAndrews 24. Why did Gandhi start out on the back of an 33. How many times did Gandhi meet the Lt. elephant? Governor? (a) a peasant had been maltreated in a village (a) four times (b) six times nearby (c) eight times (d) ten times (b) he set out to meet the secretary of British 34. What amount of repayment did the big Landlords Association planters think Gandhi would demand? (c) he set out to meet British official (a) repayment in full commissioner (b) double the amount (d) he was summoned by Sir Edward Gait, the (c) fifty percent of the amount Lt. Governor (d) no payment, just an apology 25. What did the police superintendent’s 35. What was the result of Gandhi’s meetings with messenger serve Gandhi? the Lt. Governor? (a) an invitation (a) the Lt. Governor rejected Gandhi’s plea (b) an official notice (c) summon to appear in court (b) an official commission of inquiry was (d) an arrest warrant appointed (c) a compensation of 25% was set 26. How did Gandhi behave with the officials (d) the Lt. Governor dropped the cases against outside the court? Gandhi (a) demonstrated his power (b)was firm and 36. F o r h o w l o n g d i d G a n d h i r e m a i n i n resolute Champaran? (c) he said that he would disobey the order (a) seven weeks (b) three months (d) cooperated with them (c) one and a half year (d) seven months 264 English CorE-Xii

37. Gandhi asked the big planters for ___ percent 21. (a) to leave Tirhut 22. (b) Motihari refund to the peasants. 23. (c) several lawyers (a) 10 (b) 25 24. (a) a peasant had been maltreated in a village (c) 50 (d) 65 nearby 38. The representative of the planters offered to 25. (b) an official notice refund ___ percent to the peasants 26. (d) cooperated with them (a) 5 (b) 10 27. (a) the people gathered in large numbers (c) 20 (d) 25 28. (d) 120 39. Why did Gandhi appeal for teachers? (a) to remove the cultural and social 29. (a) had been dropped 30. (b) lawyers backwardness 31. (c) about ten thousand (b) to increase the literacy standard 32. (a) Sir Edward Gait (c) he did not trust teachers of Champaran 33. (a) four times 34. (a) repayment in full (d) he contended himself with large political 35. (b) an official commission of inquiry was and economic solutions appointed 40. Who volunteered to work in Champaran? 36. (d) seven months 37. (c) 50 (a) two disciples of Gandhi and their wives 38. (d) 25 (b) Kasturba and the eldest son of Gandhi 39. (a) t o r e m o v e t h e c u l t u r a l a n d s o c i a l backwardness (c) Mahadev Desai and his wife 40. (a) two disciples of Gandhi and their wives (d) Narhari Prasad and his wife 41. (c) personal cleanliness 41. Kasturba taught rules of ____ (a) basic learning (b) mathematics 42. (a) miserable (c) personal cleanliness (d) civil disobedience 43. (b) self-reliance 42. Health conditions in Champaran were II. Short Answer Questions (a) miserable (b) tolerable 1. Who was Rajkumar Shukla? Why did he come (c) under control (d) fairly good to Lucknow? 43. What lesson did Gandhi teach by opposing Ans. Rajkumar Shukla was a poor peasant from Andrew’s stay in Champaran? Champaran district in Bihar. He had come to Lucknow, where a Congress session was (a) british could not be trusted being held, to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar. (b) self-reliance 2. Where is Champaran district situated? What (c) civil disobedience did the peasants grow there? How did they use their harvest? (d) a fight should always be amongst equals Ans. Champaran district of Bihar is situated in the Answers foothills of the Himalayas, near the kingdom of Nepal. Under an ancient arrangement, the 1. (c) 1,3,4 2. (a) a preface to Champaran peasants were sharecroppers. They had to grow indigo on 15 per cent of the 3. (d) sponsorship 4. (d) December 1916 land and give it to the English estate owners as rent. 5. (a) to attend the annual convention of the INC 3. How did the development of synthetic indigo 6. (b) Rajkumar Shukla 7. (a) Patna affect the English estate owners and the Indian tenants? 8. (b) Rajendra Prasad 9. (c) Muzaffarpur Ans. The English estate owners saw that indigo 10. (b) J.B. Kriplani 11. (c) chided cultivation was no longer profitable.They wanted money from the sharecroppers as 12. (a) Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna, compensation for being released from the Muzaffarpur 15 per cent arrangement. They obtained agreements from their tenants to this effect 13. (b) indigo and extorted money illegally and deceitfully. 14. (c) money as compensation 15. (a) prices of natural indigo would go down 16. (b) in the foothills of the Himalayas in Bihar 17. (d) indigo 18. (a) The servant thought Gandhi was another peasant 19. (b) he tried to get the facts 20. (c) the secretary said that they could not give any information to an outsider inDigo 265

4. How did the Indian peasants react to the new 10. Where did Gandhiji want to go? What agreement released them from sharecropping happened to him on the way? arrangement? Ans. Gandhiji wanted to go to a nearby village Ans. T h e s h a r e c r o p p i n g a r r a n g e m e n t w a s where a peasant had been maltreated. He had troublesome to the peasants. Many of them not gone far when the police superintendent’s signed the new agreement willingly. Some messenger overtook him and ordered him to resisted and engaged lawyers. Then they came return to town in his carriage. Gandhiji obeyed to know about synthetic indigo. The peasants the order and returned with him. wanted their money back. 11. ‘In consequence, Gandhi received a summons 5. Why do you think Gandhi was not permitted to appear in the court next day.’ Which events to draw water from Rajendra Prasad’s well at of the previous day led to this state of affairs? Patna? Ans. The police superintendent’s messenger served Ans. The servants of Rajendra Prasad thought an official notice on Gandhi. It ordered him to Gandhi to be another peasant. They did not quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi signed know him. They were not certain whether he a receipt for the notice. He wrote on the receipt was an untouchable or not. They feared that that he would disobey the order. Hence, he was some drops from his bucket might pollute the summoned to appear in the court. entire well. So, he was not permitted to draw water from the well. 12. What according to Gandhi was the beginning of the poor peasants’ ‘Liberation from fear of 6. Why did Gandhi decide to go first to the British’ ? Muzaffarpur before going to Champaran? Ans. The next morning the town of Motihari Ans. Gandhi wanted to obtain more complete was black with peasants. They had heard information about conditions than Shukla was that a Mahatma who wanted to help them capable of imparting. Muzaffarpur lawyers, was in trouble with the authorities. They who frequently represented peasant groups spontaneously demonstrated, in thousands, in courts, brief Gandhi about their cases. arround the courthouse. Gandhiji called their action of protest as their liberation from fear 7. Why did Gandhi chide the lawyers? What of the British. according to him was the real relief for the sharecroppers? 13. Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless? Ans. Gandhi chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the poor sharecroppers. He thought that Ans. Gandhiji felt that taking the Champaran case taking such cases to the court did little good to to the court was useless. Because the real relief the crushed and fear-stricken peasants. The for the peasants would come only when they relief for them, according to Gandhi, was to be become fearless. The peasants were in acute free from fear. panic. 8. How did Gandhi begin his mission in 14. What was the “conflict of duties” in which Champaran? How far did his efforts prove Gandhi was involved? successful? Ans. First, he did not want to set a bad example as Ans. He began by trying to get the facts. First, he a law breaker. Second, he wanted to render visited the secretary of the British landlord’s the “humanitarian and national service” for association. He told Gandhi that they could give which he had come. He respected the lawful no information to an outsider. Then Gandhi authority, but disregarded the order to leave called on the British official commissioner of to obey the voice of his conscience. the Tirhut Division. The commissioner tried to bully Gandhi and advised him to leave Tirhut. 15. What according to Rajendra Prasad, was the upshot of the consultations of the lawyers 9. How did Gandhi react to the commissioner’s regarding the injustice to sharecroppers? advice? Where did he go and how did people react to his arrival? Ans. They thought that Gandhi was a total stranger. Yet he was ready to go to prison for the sake of Ans. Gandhiji did not leave Tirhut division. the peasants. On the other hand, the lawyers Instead, he went to Motihari, the capital of were the residents of nearby districts. They Champaran. Several lawyers accompanied also claimed to have served these peasants. It him. At the railway station, a very large crowd would be shameful desertion if they should go of people greeted Gandhi. home then. 266 English CorE-Xii

16. “Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first 21. Why did the big planters agree in principle to time in modern India.” How? make refund to the peasants? Ans. A case against Gandhi was initiated for Ans. The official inquiry assembled a huge quantity disregarding government orders. The of evidence against the big planters. The spontaneous demonstration of thousands crushing evidence forced the big planters of peasants baffled the officials. The judge to agree in principle to make refund to the was requested to postpone the trial. Gandhi peasants. refused to furnish bail. The judge released him without bail. Several days later Gandhi 22. What amount of repayment did the big received an official letter. The case against him planters think Gandhi would demand? What had been dropped. Thus, civil disobedience had did Gandhi ask? What amount was finally triumphed. settled? 17. What do you think, led Gandhi to exclaim “The Ans. They thought Gandhi would demand battle of Champaran is won”? repayment in full of the money they had extorted from the sharecroppers. Gandhi Ans. Gandhi was ready to go to jail fighting against asked only 50 per cent. The planters offered to the injustice to the sharecroppers. Many refund up to 25 per cent. Gandhi was adamant prominent lawyers had come from all over on 50 per cent. The deadlock was broken when Bihar to advise and help him. At first, they Gandhi agreed to a settlement of 25 per cent said they would go back if Gandhi went to refund to peasants. prison. Later, they had consultations. They told Gandhi they were ready to follow him 23. How did the refund-settlement influence the into jail. This support made Gandhi extremely peasant-landlord relationship in Champaran? happy and confident. This confidence led him to exclaim that the battle of Champaran Ans. Before the settlement of the refund, the was won. planters had behaved as lords above the law. Now the peasant saw that he had rights and 18. How did Gandhi and the lawyers try to secure defenders. He learned courage. Within a few justice for the sharecroppers? years, the British planters abandoned their estates. The peasants became masters of the Ans. They started conducting a detailed enquiry land. There were no sharecropers now. into the grievances of the peasants. Depositions by about ten thousand peasants 24. Which other spheres besides political or were written down. Notes were made on other economic fields received Gandhi’s attention evidence. Documents were collected. The during his long stay in Champaran? whole area came alive with the activities of the investigators. The landlords raised loud Ans. The cultural and social backwardness of the protests. Champaran areas pained Gandhi. He appealed for teachers. Several persons responded to 19. What was the reaction of Gandhi and his his call. Primary schools were opened in six associates when he was summoned to the villages. Kasturba taught the ashram rules lieutenant governor? on personal cleanliness and community sanitation. With the help of a doctor and three Ans. In June, Gandhiji was summoned to Sir medicines, they tried to fight the miserable Edward Gait, the Lieutenant Governor. health conditions. Anything could happen. Gandhi met his leading associates before going. Detailed plans 25. “This was typical Gandhi pattern” observes for civil disobedience were chalked out in case Louis Fischer. What do you learn about he should not return. Gandhian politics from the extract ‘Indigo’? 20. What was the outcome of the four protracted Ans. Gandhi’s politics was intermixed with the interviews Gandhiji had with the Lieutenant practical, everyday life of the millions of Governor? Indians. This was not a loyalty to abstractions. It was a loyalty to living human beings. In Ans. An official commission of enquiry into the everything Gandhi did, he tried to mould a sharecroppers’ situation was appointed. This new free Indian who could stand on his own commission consisted of landlords, government feet and thus make India free. officials and Gandhi as the sole representative of the peasants. 26. Why was Gandhiji opposed to C.F. Andrews helping him in Champaran? Ans. During the Champaran action, Gandhi’s inDigo 267

lawyer friends thought it would be good if C.F. Ans. One of the reasons was his accessibility. Andrews stayed on in Champaran and helped Anyone and everyone could meet him at them. Gandhi opposed this idea as it showed any time with their problem. Secondly, he the weakness of their heart. Their cause was genuinely cared about solving their problems just and they must rely upon themselves and patiently heard them out and recorded to win this unequal fight. They should not their evidence. He proved his commitment seek the support of Mr Andrews because he to their cause by spending almost a year happened to be an Englishman. with them till he solved the problem. He was 27. The peasants were themselves the most crucial selfless, dressed like them, lived in their hut agents in the success of the Champaran Civil with them and put himself first in facing the Disobedience. Expand anger of the Britishers, willing to go to person, Ans. It is a fact that the people responsible for the if required for their cause. success of the Champaran Civil Disobedience were the peasants themselves. If they had III. Long Answer Questions not overcome their fear of the Britishers and come out in such large numbers outsides the 1. Why did Gandhiji consider freedom from fear Motihari Court, they would not have been more important than legal justice for the poor able to intimidate and overwhelm the British peasants of Champaran? rulers. Or 28. Gandhi makes it clear that money and finance What solution to the problems of the poor did are a secondary aspect of the struggle in Gandhi suggest? How far did the Champaran Champaran. Comment on aspect that you movement help in this direction? think was most important for Gandhi. Ans. For Gandhiji it was more important to show Ans. The sharecropper peasants had to grow indigo the peasant that the Britishers were not above on 15 per cent of their holdings and surrender the law. He wanted them to overcome their the indigo harvest as rent to the landlord. fear for the court and to break the image in When Germany developed synthetic indigo, the minds for the peasants that the Britishers the British planters started extracting money were infallible and could not be touched. illegally and deceitfully as compensation from Moreover their agreeing to surrender 25% of the peasants for being released from the 15 per the compensation amount was a boost tot he cent arrangement. The peasants were made peasants because with the money the English to sign new agreements and pay money. The were forced to surrender a part of their planters behaved as lords above the law. Many prestige. peasants engaged lawyers at hefty fees and 29. Gandhi was a lawyer himself. Examine went to courts. how his professional expertise helped in The Muzaffarpur lawyers briefed Gandhi Champaran. about the peasants for whom they frequently Ans. Gandhiji’s training as a lawyer was great help represented in courts. Gandhi realised that towards the resolutions of the Champaran these peasants were badly crushed and issue. He knew that a case can be won in fear-stricken. Freedom from fear was more the court only if they had hardcore evidence important than legal justice for them. Gandhiji against the English and so out his arrival at was ready to court arrest for them. Thousands Muzzafarpur and later at Champaran. He of peasants demonstrated spontaneously spent all his time in collecting evidence and around the court. The government had to investigating the cases of harassments of the release Gandhi without bail. This voluntary peasants by the landlords. Therefore he was uprising of the peasants marked the beginning able to collect more than 10,000 depositions of their liberation from the fear of the British. and this mounting evidence against the landlords forced them to acknowledge 2. Why was Gandhi summoned to appear in the their wrong doings and agree to pay some court? How did he gain his liberty? compensation amount to the peasants. Or 30. Explain the possible reasons for Gandhi’s ‘Civil disobedience had triumphed, the first quick popularity among the peasants of time in modern India.’ Relate the events Champaran. during Gandhi’s stay in Champaran that led to the triumph. 268 English CorE-Xii Ans. Gandhi had reached Motihari, the Capital of Champaran, to study the problems of the

sharecropper peasants. He was on his way to peasants. The official inquiry assembled huge a neighbouring village, where a peasant was quantity of evidence against the big planters. ill-treated. On the way, he was stopped by They agreed, in principle, to make refunds to the police superintendent’s messenger and the peasants. After consultation, a settlement ordered to return to town. When he reached of 25 per cent refund to the farmers was home, he was served with an official notice to agreed on. This was a moral victory of the quit Champaran at once. Gandhi wrote on the peasants. They recognised their rights and receipt that he would disobey the order. So learned courage. Gandhi received a summons to appear in the Within a few years the British planters gave court the next day. up their estates. These now went back to the Next morning the town of Motihari was peasants. They became the masters of land. black with peasants. Thousands of peasants Thus, indigo sharecropping disappeared. demonstrated voluntarily outside the court. 4. How did Gandhi work for rural uplift during The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone his stay in Champaran? the trial. Gandhi protested against the delay. Ans. Gandhi wanted to do something to remove He read out a statement pleading guilty. He the cultural and social backwardness in asked the penalty. The judge announced that Champaran villages. He appealed for teachers. he would pronounce the sentence after a two- Two young disciples of Gandhi, Mahadev hour recess. He asked Gandhi to furnish bail Desai and Narhari Parikh and their wives for that period. Gandhi refused. The judge volunteered themselves for work. Several released him without bail. After the recess, others responded from distant parts of the the judge said that he would not deliver the country. Mrs. Kasturba Gandhi and Devdas, judgement for several days. Meanwhile he Gandhi’s youngest son, arrived from the allowed Gandhi to remain at liberty. Ashram. Primary schools were opened in Several days later Gandhi received a letter. six villages. Kasturba taught the ashram The case against him had been dropped. Thus, rules on personal cleanliness and community civil disobedience had triumphed, for the first cleanliness. She also talked to women about time in India. their filthy clothes. 3. Give an account of Gandhi’s efforts to secure Health conditions were miserable. Gandhi justice for the poor indigo sharecroppers of got a doctor to volunteer his services for six Champaran. months. Only three medicines were available: Castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment. Or Anyone who showed a coated tongue was given “Indigo sharecropping disappeared.” Which a dose of castor oil; anybody with malaria fever factors do you think, helped to achieve freedom received quinine plus castor oil; anybody with for the fear-stricken peasants of Champaran? skin eruptions received ointment plus caster Ans. Gandhi went to Champaran on receiving oil. reports of exploitation of the poor sharecropper Thus, Gandhi never contented himself with peasants at the hands of British planters. He large political or economic solutions. He began by trying to get the facts. The British worked for total uplift of villages and the poor landlords as well as the Commissioner of sections of the society. Tirhut were non-cooperative. Lawyers from 5. ‘Self-reliance, Indian independence and help Muzaffarpur briefed him about the court cases to sharecroppers were all bound together.’ of these peasants. Elucidate on the basis of reading ‘Indigo’ by Gandhi and the lawyers collected depositions Louis Fischer. by about ten thousand peasants. Notes were made on other evidence. Documents were Or collected. The whole area throbbed with the ‘The Champaran episode was a turning-point activities of the investigators and forceful in Gandhi’s life. Explain with examples from protests of landlords. ‘Indigo’ by Louis Fischer. The lieutenant governor summoned Gandhi. Ans. Gandhi stayed in Champaran for a long time. After four protracted interviews an official The Champaran episode was a turning point commission of inquiry was appointed to look in his life. It was during this struggle in into the indigo sharecroppers’ condition. 1917 that he decided to urge the departure of Gandhi was the sole representative of the the British. inDigo 269

Champaran episode did not begin as an act of secure justice for oppressed people through defiance. It grew out of an attempt to make the convincing argumentation and negotiation. sufferings of large numbers of poor peasants Gandhi had a magnetic attraction and great less severe. Gandhi concentrated on their persuasive power. He could draw people of all practical day to day problems. He analysed classes to himself and make them partners in the root cause of the problem–fear, and tried the freedom movement. Even ordinary people to eradicate it. The voluntary demonstration of were inspired to make contribution to the the poor peasants against the government for freedom movement. putting Gandhi in trouble was the beginning Gandhi emerges as a champion of the of the end of their fear of the British. downtrodden and the oppressed. Rural uplift In everything Gandhi did, he tried to mould a was his favourite programme. His knowledge new free Indian who could stand on his own of legal procedure and respect for law is feet and thus make India free. He taught his also highlighted. He does not want to be a lawyer friends a lesson in self-reliance by lawbreaker. At the same time he wants to opposing the involvement of C.F. Andrews, render the humanitarian and national service an Englishman in their unequal fight. His in obedience to the higher law of our being, the help would be a prop. This would reflect their voice of conscience. He also appears as a polite weakness. Their cause was just and they must and friendly person. Gandhi’s ability to read rely on themselves to win the battle. Thus the minds of others made them speechless. He self-reliance, Indian independence and help believed in self-reliance, just cause and purity to sharecroppers were all bound together. of means to achieve India’s Independence. 6. Justify the appropriateness of the title ‘Indigo’ 8. Why is the Champaran episode considered Give reason to support your answer. to be the beginning of the Indian struggle for Ans. The title ‘Indigo’ is quite appropriate, to the Independence? point and suggestive. It at once focuses our Ans. The Champaran episode began as an attempt attention on the central issue–the exploitation to ease the sufferings of a large number of of the indigo sharecropper peasants at the peasants. He got spontaneous support of hands of cruel British planters. They compelled thousands of people. Gandhi declared that them through a long term agreement to raise the British could not order him about in indigo on 15 per cent of their landholding and his own country. Under his leadership, the surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. peasants became aware of their rights. Raj After the development of synthetic indigo Kumar Shukla, a farmer of Champaran by Germany, the British planters extracted helped him a lot in bringing about the change. money from the peasants as compensation for Other peasants too fought courageously and being released from the 15 per cent agreement. contributed in their own way to the movement. The peasants who wanted their money back It resulted in their winning the battle of had filed civil suits. The planters who behaved Champaran. The effects of Gandhi’s method of as lords above the law and were dreaded by non-violence and non-cooperation proved very the poor were obliged to surrender part of fruitful in this movement. Hence, it can be said money and with it part of their prestige. that the Champaran episode is the beginning The extract also points out the work done of the Indian struggle for independence. by Gandhi and his associates to improve the 9. Patriotism is in political life what faith is in economic, political, cultural and social life of religion. John F Kennedy said, “Ask not what the indigo sharecroppers. Their education, your country can do for you, ask what you health and hygiene also received due can do for your country”. Those who sacrifice attention. The plight of indigo sharecroppers, their comfort for the welfare of the state get their struggle under Gandhi’s leadership and recognition. Write an article on the topic ultimate victory when Indigo sharecropping ‘Patriotism’. You can take ideas from the disappeared from important landmarks. Thus, following hints: the title ‘Indigo’ is highly suggestive and apt. “They thought, amongst themselves, that 7. What impression do you form about Gandhi Gandhi was totally a stranger, and yet he on reading the chapter ‘Indigo’ ? was prepared to go to prison for the sake of Ans. The chapter ‘Indigo’ pays a tribute to the the peasants; if they, on the other hand, being leadership shown by Mahatma Gandhi to not only residents of the adjoining districts 270 English CorE-Xii

but also those who claimed to have served youngsters are misguided by the friends to these peasants, should go home, it would be multiply their benefits within a short span shameful desertion.” of time. One should always remember that corruption starts from the top. If the head of Ans. Patriotism the family is corrupt, the other members will also imitate his actions. Our politicians and Breathes there the man with soul so dead, bureaucrats are corrupt and unscrupulous. They don’t have any moral authority. Such who never to himself hath said, corrupt politicians and bureaucrats should be punished and the honest persons should this is my own native land! be rewarded if we intend to create a congenial atmosphere in our country. The system of —Scott justice is outdated and obsolete. It is said that ‘justice delayed is justice denied’. People do not Patriotism implies love for one’s nation. A get justice in the court of law. If corruption is patriot is ready to sacrifice his comfort for the not checked, the poor will be exploited without service of his nation. It was for his country’s any inhibition. sake that Sardar Bhagat Singh kissed the 11. Obstacles determine the quality of life. gallows. It was for the love for their land Hermits feel convinced that ‘sweet are the that Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Govind uses of adversity’. Problems are opportunities. Singh suffered untold hardships. True patriots Elucidate the saying taking ideas from the respect other nations and religions but don’t given lines: allow anyone to insult their nation. A great “Events justified Gandhi’s position. Within a philosopher said, “It is not gold that makes a few years the British planters abandoned their nation great. It is the sacrifice and martyrdom estates, which reverted to the peasants. Indigo of patriots that raises a nation to the heights sharecropping disappeared.” of glory.” India is a land where patriots are Ans. Sweet are the Uses of Adversity in abundance. It got its freedom only because The Bible proclaims that ‘Man is born unto of the efforts of its patriots. Patriotism is a trouble, as the sparks fly upward’. Adversity religion and an ideal. It is an ideology that is the first path that leads towards the truth. guides the people of a nation. It is a feeling Emerson opines that ‘every calamity is a spur and a bond that unites the people of various and valuable hint’. But one cannot forget the sects, beliefs and backgrounds together. A truth that ‘there is no wind that always blows patriot must not be narrow minded. He should a storm’. Problems are only opportunities develop an international progressive outlook. in work clothes. Every individual aspires It would be pertinent to quote the words of to attain phenomenal success in this era of Seneca here, “No one loves his country for its consumerism. No one can refuse to accept the size or eminence, but because it is his own.” fact that material pleasures and prosperity bring happiness. But one cannot dare to ignore 10. Undoubtedly, only a socially just country the significance of trying circumstances. One has the right to exist. In the modern world wishes to be away from the situations which justice is a concept. Muscle is the reality. can be troublesome and irksome. But one must Corruption has become the way of the world. not despair in those situations and should face The destitute are exploited ruthlessly. People the music of life. Prosperity makes a person feel that ‘to make a living, craftiness is better lazy and ease loving. Adversity, on the other than learnedness’. Write an article on the topic hand, though trying and full of hardships, mentioned above taking ideas from the given has a chastening effect. One’s character and lines: personality become dynamic and vibrant if one fights bravely against the odd circumstances. “Gandhi protested against the delay. He It will not be wrong if we say that “as gold read a statement pleading guilty… when the shines in fire, man shines in adversity’. court reconvened, the judge said he would not deliver the judgement for several days.” “If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to Ans. Corruption in Contemporary India the thing itself, but to your own Corruption has engulfed all the educated, inDigo 271 skilled and semi-skilled workers. Corruption means dishonesty and illegal behavior especially of the people in authority. A person resorts to corruption because of his poverty, lack of moral strength and other psychological and financial problems. Moreover, the path of righteousness is full of thorns. Some of the

estimate of it; and this you have them the path to becoming responsible world leaders. Based on your understanding of the power to revoke at any moment” Gandhi’s own leadership skills, write a speech, as Gandhi, addressing the students about —Marcus Aurelius the qualities that every leader and politician should nurture. 12. Education sets the tone of a nation. Joseph Addison has rightly said, “What sculpture to Dear students, you are all leaders of social a block of marble, education is to the soul”. change. I see many bright and enthusiastic But the quality of education is deteriorating faces that assure me that our future is in good gradually. Discuss the defects of our education hands. I have learnt from my own experience... system in your own words. Do remember the (continue)......... following expressions: Ans. Leadership is all about serving those who “Gandhi never contented himself with large need you, trust you and have faith in you. A political or economic solutions. He saw the true leader always leads by example. Before cultural and social backwardness in the expecting others to do something the leader Champaran villages… He appealed for has to do it first. Leadership is not about teachers.” power but about alleviating the sorrows, the problems and the suffering of those who are Ans. Defects of our Education System marginalized by society. Those who have no power, the poor’s the downtrodden, those who “Education is the ability to listen to almost need support. And most importantly all this anything without losing your temper or your has to be done without expectation of any kind. self-confidence’’. Education does not mean No expectation of being recognized and lauded teaching people to know what they do not for deeds. Every effort should be directed know; it means teaching them to behave as towards lessening the hardships of those who they do not behave, says John Ruskin. The have no one to turn to. Following different prime objective of our education system is to schools of thought, philosophies do not have develop a child’s over all personality. It should a place here. Loyalty to abstract ideas to be train not only the mind, but also the body and replaced by loyalty to living human beings. soul. Unfortunately, our present education system fails to achieve these objectives. The 14. Let us assume it was Rajendra Prasad who present education system does not make a informed Charles Freer Andrews of Gandhi’s child creative. It makes him a crammer. A decision and the reasons for other leaders’ child/pupil has to mug up nearly 200-300 support of him. Thinking creatively of how pages a year to pass his examination. Students Andrews would have responded and pen down are not given any practical training. They the discussion you think would have taken never go to laboratories to verify the theories. place Rajendra Prasad and Andrews. Moreover, the present admission system has become the laughing stock of society. Ans. Dr. Prasad: Dear Charles, I want to convey The school authorities have a provision for to you Gandhiji decision of not including you those tiny tots who seek admission to pre- in the fight against the British rulers. He is nursery. This is the height of absurdity. truly appreciative of your offer to stand by the We need not the people who can only read Indians, but he feels it will be unfair to use you and write. Our nation requires engineers, as the prop our fight against the unjust British scientists, technicians and doctors. Vocational laws. He feels including you would mean that education is the need of the hour but not at we do not have faith in this fight and feel that the cost of values. An educated man should our fight is not a righteous one. He wants us not have only bookish knowledge. He must to have faith in our abilities and become self- have the knowledge of practical things. Maria reliant. He wants very Indian to connect to Montessori conceived that ‘The first idea that the inner strength, courage and power that the child must acquire in order to be actively lies within them and become courageous and disciplined is that of the difference between good and evil; and the task of the educator fearless of the British might. In his opinion lies in seeing that the child does not confound good with immobility, and evil with activity’. that is the only why we can get freedom from 13. Imagine Gandhi were to deliver a speech this oppression. to students in present day India showing 272 English CorE-Xii

6 Poets and Pancakes ——Asokamitran About the Author Summary Ashokmitran was born in Secunderabad on 22 The story “Poets and Pancakes” is a passage September 1931. He spent the first twenty years from Asokamitran’s book “My Years with Boss”. of his life there. His real name was Jagadisa Asokamitran talks about his days at the Gemini Thyagarajan. He moved to Chennai in 1952 after the Studio. The Gemini Studios produced many films, death of his father. His father’s friend, S.S. Vasan which impacted the aspect of Indian life. Here, who was a film director and the owner of Gemini Asokamitran talks about a trendy make-up brand Studios, invited him to work at Studios. He worked named Pancake. This material was bought and for more than a decade at the Gemini Studios. used in the studio. He also names the few actresses who used the brand. The Gemini Studios used the Theme Pancake brand excessively and ordered truckloads of their commodities. An account of the events and personalities in a film company in the early days of Indian cinema. He talks about the office boy whose task was to slap paint onto the faces of the players at the time of Justification of the Title crowd-shooting. He states that the office boy once yearned to be a director, actor, screenwriter, or Gemini studio has some great poets like SDS lyricist. However, he blamed his disgrace on Subbu. Yogiar, Sangue Subramanyam, Harindranath Chattopadhyaya. They were insignificant poets but In those days, the author worked inside a cubicle thought themselves as they are excellent. They were and had the job of gathering newspaper cuttings not talented but wasted lots of money of Vasan. which, according to others, was unimportant. Thus, Gemini studio also was the most influential film the office boy would come to bother him with his producing organization of India, where over 600 complaints. The office boy was probably jealous of staff worked, the Gemini Studios made movie Subbu’s growth. Subbu was very close to his boss. for Tamilnadu and other southern Indian states. When the boss had any problem in doing a scene in a Pancakes was the make-up material that Gemini film, Subbu could recommend several practical ideas. studios bought in truck-loads. So the title ‘Poets and As Subbu was Brahmin, the author thought he had Pancakes’ is apt and appropriate. the upper hand. Though Subbu was always beside his boss, he was also a member of the story department. Message Besides poets and writers in the story department, there existed a lawyer too. Formally he was known The message of the lesson is simple and straight. as a legal adviser. However, people called him the Everyone should be dedicated to their profession opposite of it. Once the legal adviser unconsciously irrespective of caste, colour or creed. This is what destroyed the career of a talented actress. happened in Gemini studios where the artists were always busy in their own assignment how small or big In the story of Poet and Pancakes, the narrator talks position they had. They had no political association or about another guest who visited Gemini Studios. inclination, they were rather united with a common He was an Englishman. Some thought him to be a goal of making movies. Moreover, when MRA tried poet or an editor. The Boss, Mr. Vasan, greeted the to influence about communism it failed to produce Englishman. He read out a long speech expressing effects on the artists, so one unity counts at every freedom and democracy. Then the Englishman step. conversed. His accent baffled everyone. They could 273

not understand the purpose of his visit, and it had the ability to look cheerful at all times, could remained a mystery. be ‘inspired when commanded’, was tailor-made for films, had a separate identity as a poet and actor, had Years later, when the writer left the Gemini studios, a genuine love for bothers, was charitable, always he did not have much money but had much free time. seen with the Boss, attached to Story. So, discounted goods on sale interested him. Once the writer came across a book that had six essays written Department. Story Department – assembly of poets by six famous men who wrote about communalism. and writers wore khadi. The authors of the book were Richard Wright, Louis Fischer, and Stephen Spender. As the writer read A lawyer(legal adviser) – referred to as ‘the opposite’- Stephen’s name, it reminded him of the days when caused the end of a brief and the brilliant career Spenders visited Gemini Studios. of a talented actress, looked ‘alone and helpless’, a man of cold logic in a crowd of dreamers, close to the Finally, in the summary of Poets and Pancakes, we Boss, wore pants, coat and a tie, attached to Story can see the notions of the film industry, particularly Department, lost his job when the Story Department in India. was closed down. Talking about Indian cinema, we receive a lot of Gemini studios –a favourite haunt of poets, an films every year but the success of a movie solely excellent mess which supplied good coffee, Congress depends upon the other people working backstage. rule meant prohibition, almost everyone radiated If these people are not there, then it is not even leisure, wore Khadi and worshipped Gandhi, averse possible for us to have good films. India has films in to Communism. multiple languages such as Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Kennedy, Punjabi, Bhojpuri, and so on. The Indian Visit of MRA (a kind of counter-movement to film industry is a global enterprise. Indian movies International Communism) in 1952- presented two are famous all around the world and people love to plays ‘The Forgotten Factor’ and ‘Jotham Valley’ in watch them. a professional manner impressed Madras and Tamil drama community. CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL Another visitor – a poet from England, tall man, The Gemini studio was located in Madras (Chennai). very English, addressed ‘a more dazed and silent The writer recounts his years in the company. audience’, visit remained an unexplained mystery, The make-up department was in the upstairs of staff did not know whether he was a poet or an editor. a building that was believed to have been Robert Clive’s stables. Author’s conviction about prose-writers –‘prose Pancake was the brand name of the make-up writing is for the patient, persistent, persevering material used by the artists in Gemini Studios. drudge’, short story contest by a British periodical The make-up room had the look of a hair -cutting ‘The Encounter’-found in the British Council Library salon with incandescent lights at all angles around almost untouched by readers’, discovered Stephen half a dozen large mirrors, the writer speaks about Spender was the editor. the ‘fiery misery’ ‘of those subjected to make-up. There was a great deal of ‘national integration’ in the The author bought ‘The God That Failed’ years later department and a strict hierarchy was maintained –six essays describing the disillusionment of six there. eminent men of letters with Communism, Stephen The players who played the crowd were the Spender one among them, the author suddenly responsibility of the ‘office boy’ in his early forties, a realized the relevance of his visit to Gemini studios. frustrated person, who turned all his anger towards Kothamanagalam Subbu. Type I. RefeRence To conTexT The author’s job was to cut out newspaper clippings and store them in files. Read the extracts given below and attempt the Most people including the ‘boy’ thought author was questions that follow: doing ‘next to nothing’. S S Vasan (Editor of Tamil weekly ‘Ananada 1. The make-up room had the look of a hair-cutting Vikatan’) was the owner of the Studios. salon with lights at all angles around half a Subbu was the No.2. at Gemini Studios – a Brahmin, dozen large mirrors. They were all incandescent lights, so you can imagine the fiery misery 274 English CorE-Xii of those subjected to make-up. The make-up department was first headed by a Bengali who became too big for a studio and left. He was succeeded by a Maharashtrian who was assisted by a Dharwar Kannadiga, an Andhra, a Madras Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese and the

usual local Tamils. All this shows that there was (vi) The Bengali make-up man left because a great deal of national integration long before (a) the weather troubled him A.I.R. and Doordarshan began broadcasting (b) he became too proud of his fame programmes on national integration. This gang (c) he became too fat of nationally integrated make-up men could turn (d) he became too tall any decent-looking person into a hideous crimson hued monster with the help of truck-loads of Answers pancake and a number of other locally made (i) (c) It had lights at all angles and half a dozen potions and lotions. large mirrors. Questions (ii) The lights were all incandescent lights and the heat they produced was terrible. (i) How did the make-up room get the look of a hair-cutting salon? (iii) (c) The staff consisted of a Bengali, a (a) A lot of hair-cutting was going on in the Maharashtrian and an Andhra, a Madras make-up room. Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese and (b) Most of the make-up men were barbers and Tamils. slowly they gave it a look of a salon. (c) It had lights at all angles and half a dozen (iv) (b) It was indoor shooting and heavy make-up large mirrors. was needed to look good in the movies. (d) People came to the make-up room to get their hair cut and trimmed. (v) (b) In the Gemini Studio (ii) How did those subjected to make-up suffer a (vi) (b) he became too proud of his fame fiery misery? 2. This man of the make-up department was (iii) Why was there national integration long convinced that all his woes, ignominy and neglect before A.I.R and Doordarshan in the make-up were due to Kothamangalam Subbu. Subbu was department? the No. 2 at Gemini Studios. He couldn’t have (a) Make-up of different states were practised had a more encouraging opening in films than here. our grown-up make-up boy had. On the contrary (b) They did make up for actors and actresses he must have had to face more uncertain and from different states difficult times, for when he began his career, (c) The staff consisted of a Bengali, a there were no firmly established film producing Maharashtrian and an Andhra, a Madras companies or studios. Even in the matter of Indian Christian, an Anglo-Burmese and education, specially formal education, Subbu Tamils. couldn’t have had an appreciable lead over our (d) The staff studied the various types of make- boy. But by virtue of being born a Brahmin — a up from different states and applied them virtue, indeed!— he must have had exposure to on the actors. more affluent situations and people. He had the ability to look cheerful at all times even after (iv) Why did the make up men make the actors look having had a hand in a flop film. He always had like hideous crimson hued monsters? work for somebody — he could never do things (a) They had a lot of make-up potions and on his own— but his sense of loyalty made him lotions and wanted to use them. identify himself with his principal completely (b) It was indoor shooting and heavy make-up and turn his entire creativity to his principal’s was needed to look good in the movies. advantage. (c) They loved putting on make-up and plastered it on their faces. Questions (d) They thought they were looking very beautiful and presentable with it, so they (i) What was the office boy from the make-up applied more and more. department convinced of Subbu? (v) Where was the make-up room located? (ii) What is the appreciable lead that Subbu had (a) In Chennai over the make-up department office boy? (b) In the Gemini Studio (a) He had a more encouraging opening in films. (c) In Mumbai (b) He did not have to face uncertainties and (d) In Andhra Pradesh difficult times like the office boy. (c) He was better educated than the office boy. (d) He had the virtue of being born a Brahmin. PoEts anD PanCakEs 275

(iii) What was unique about Subbu? Questions (a) He always had a frown on his forehead. (b) He looked cheerful all times even if he had (i) Why were Moral Re-Armament army not good on a hand in flop film. the trapeze? (c) He was always cutting papers and sticking them in a file. (a) While doing their act on the trapeze they (d) He did not have a single good word to say kept falling down. to anyone. (b) The trapeze was not tied properly and thus (iv) How did Subbu work at Gemini Studios? they could not perform well. (a) All his creativity was towards his principal’s advantage. (c) They were not a circus group, they were a (b) He was seen lazing around doing nothing theatre group. for hours. (c) He set himself up to supervise the office boy (d) Their idea was to make people laugh while of the make-up department. performing so they kept falling down. (d) He was a story writer and was always writing new scripts. (ii) What was admirable about the theatre plays of Moral Re-armament army? (v) What does the expression ‘Subbu was the No. 2 at the Gemini studios’, mean? (iii) What did the Tamil plays copy from the MRA? (vi) Subbu was ‘tailor-made’ for film because of his (iv) Why did the big bosses of Madras like Mr. Vasan (a) creativity and resourcefulness simply play into the hands of the M.R.A.? (b) cheerful personality (c) loyalty to his principal (a) They were international and represented (d) involvement with all parts of film-making many nations. Answers (b) They put up plays which the big bosses of (i) He was convinced that all his woes, ignominy Madras highly appreciated. and neglect was due to Subbu. (c) They were a kind of counter-movement to (ii) (d) He had the virtue of being born a Brahmin. international communism. (iii) (b) He looked cheerful all times even if he had (d) They were the best comedy theatre roaming a hand in flop film. round the whole world. (iv) (a) All his creativity was towards his principal’s (v) ‘Simple homilies‘ means ........ advantage. (a) stories about homes (b) a tedious moralizing lecture (v) It means that Subbu was the 2nd important (c) an exciting story person in the studio. (d) a horror story (vi) (a) creativity and resourcefulness (vi) The tone of the writer in these lines is.... 3. They weren’t very good on the trapeze and their acquaintance with animals was only at the dinner (a) ironical (b) humorous table, but they presented two plays in a most professional manner. Their ‘Jotham Valley’ and (c) sad (d) cheerful ‘The Forgotten Factor’ ran several shows in Madras and along with the other citizens of the city, the Answers Gemini family of six hundred saw the plays over (i) (c) They were not a circus group, they were a and over again. The message of the plays were theatre group. usually plain and simple homilies, but the sets and costumes were first-rate. Madras and the Tamil (ii) Their set and costumes were first-rate and the drama community were terribly impressed and for audience was terribly impressed by them. some years almost all Tamil plays had a scene of sunrise and sunset in the manner of ‘Jotham Valley’ (iii) The Tamil plays copied from the MRA a scene with a bare stage, a white background curtain and of sunrise and sunset with a bare stage. a tune played on the flute. It was some years later that I learnt that the MRA was a kind of counter- (iv) (c) They were a kind of counter-movement to movement to international Communism and the international communism. big bosses of Madras like Mr. Vasan simply played into their hands. (v) (b) a tedious moralizing lecture 276 English CorE-Xii (vi) (b) humorous 4. And years later, when I was out of Gemini Studios and I had much time but not much money, anything at a reduced price attracted my attention. On the footpath in front of the Madras Mount Road Post Office, there was a pile of brand new books for fifty paise each. Actually they were copies of the same book, an elegant paperback of American origin. ‘Special low-priced student edition, in

connection with the 50th Anniversary of the successfully recreated the mood and manner of Russian Revolution’, I paid fifty paise and picked the Devadasis of the early 20th century. He was up a copy of the book, The God That Failed. Six an amazing actor-he never aspired to the lead eminent men of letters in six separate essays roles-but whatever subsidiary role he played in described ‘their journeys into Communism and any of the films, he performed better than the their disillusioned return’. supposed main players. He had a genuine love Questions for anyone he came across and his house was a permanent residence for dozens of near and far (i) What was the book “The God that Failed” all relations and acquaintances. about? Questions (ii) Why did the book assume tremendous importance for the author? (i) Which of these statements is NOT TRUE about (a) One of the writers was Ignazio Silione Subbu? (b) One of the writers was Stephen Spender. (a) His literary accomplishments stole the (c) One of the writers was Richard Wright. limelight from his films. (d) One of the writers was Louis Fischer. (b) He was a gifted poet and writer and his literary works were noteworthy. (iii) What enlightenment did the author get? (c) He was selfless in nature and was empathetic (a) He felt sorry for Stephen Spender. towards others. (b) He now understood why Stephen spender (d) He never hankered after lead roles and came to Gemini Studios. performed minor roles in films. (c) He understood why the office boy was always unhappy about Subbu. (ii) The word ‘sprawling’ has been used with the (d) He understood why he himself had to keep word ‘novel’. Pick the option with which the tearing papers and gluing them in a file. word ‘sprawling’ CANNOT be used. (iv) Who was the “God That Failed”? (a) Metropolis (b) Handwriting (a) The big bosses of Madras Gemini studios. (b) Stephen Spender (c) Campus (d) Portrait (c) Subbu (d) Communism (iii) The phrase ‘deftly etched’ shows that Subbu (a) created the roles delicately. (v) ‘Six eminent men of letters means .... (b) was skilful in creating the characters. (a) six famous people (b) six men (c) pondered beyond necessity about the (c) six well-known writers characters. (d) six famous letters writers (d) gave very little thought to the characters. (vi) Why was the book low-priced? Answers (iv) Pick the option that best describes Subbu according to the extract. (i) It was the book of essays by six authors about their journey to communism and their 1. Benevolent 2. Powerful disillusioned return. 3. accomplished 4. Witty (ii) (b) One of the writers was Stephen Spender. 5. Generous 6. Temperamental (iii) (b) he now understood why Stephen spender came to Gemini Studios. (a) 4, 5 & 6 (b) 2, 3 & 4 (c) 1,3 & 5 (d) 3 ,4 & 6 (iv) (d) Communism (v) What does the expression ‘dwarfed his literary (v) (c) six well-known writers achievements’ means ? (vi) The book was low priced because it was printed (vi) Another word for ‘subsidiary role’ is..... in memory of the Russians Revolution. (a) supporting (b) leading 5. His success in films overshadowed and dwarfed his literary achievements-or so his critics felt. (c) comic (d) villanous He composed several truly original ‘story poems’ in folk refrain and diction and also wrote a Answers sprawling novel Thillana Mohanambal with (i) (a) His literary accomplishments stole the dozens of very deftly etched characters. He quite limelight from his films. (ii) (d) Portrait (iii) (b) was skilful in creating the characters. (iv) (c) 1,3 & 5 (v) It means that his writing ability was made less important. (vi) (a) supporting PoEts anD PanCakEs 277

6. Barring the office boys and a couple of clerks, (c) are creative and need to have free time to everybody else at the Studios radiated leisure, a weave their thoughts. pre-requisite for poetry. Most of them wore khadi and worshipped Gandhiji but beyond that they (d) begin poetic compositions in rushed way and had not the faintest appreciation for political end in a relaxed manner. thought of any kind. Naturally, they were all averse to the term ‘Communism’. A communist (v) What does the phrase ‘radiated leisure’ mean? was a godless man-he had no filial or conjugal love; he had no compunction about killing his (vi) ‘he had no compunction’ means .... own parents or his children; he was always out (a) He did not have sorrowful feelings. to cause and spread unrest and violence among (b) He did not think twice before doing innocent and ignorant people. Such notions, something. which prevailed everywhere else in South (c) He was thoughtful and careful before taking India at that time also, naturally, floated about any action. vaguely among the khadi-clad poets of Gemini (d) He was indifferent to the activities taking Studios. Evidence of it was soon forthcoming. place around them. Questions Answers (i) Pick the option that uses the same figure of (i) (b) She is a Gandhi when she raises her voice speech as ‘A communist is a godless man.’ against ‘hinsa’ or violence. (a) She is as determined as Gandhi when it is a fight against injustice. (ii) (c) Both Statement 1 and Statement 2 cannot (b) She is a Gandhi when she raises her voice be inferred. against ‘hinsa’ or violence. (c) She, like Gandhi, feels that the Earth is (iii) (b) One can enjoy poetry when there’s free time. crying for deliverance. (iv) (b) maintain a leisured pace in all tasks they (d) She lives a life of opulence and calls herself a follower of Gandhi. do. (ii) Based on the extract, choose the correct option (v) It means ‘enjoying free time’. with reference to the two statements given (vi) (c) He was thoughtful and careful before taking below. any action Statement 1: At Gemini Studios, the poets had a profound knowledge about Communists. Type II. TexT-Based QuesTIons Statement 2: Communists were responsible for I. Multiple Choice Questions anarchy and discontent in the country. (a) Statement 1 is true but Statement 2 is false. 1. ‘In any case, there was this man in the (b) Statement 1 is false but Statement 2 is true. make-up department who would wish the (c) Both Statement 1 and Statement 2 cannot direst things for Subbu’. Here ‘direst things’ be inferred. (d) Both Statement 1 and Statement 2 can be refers to something that is inferred. (a) urgent (b) desperate (iii) Why do you think leisure is a pre-requisite for (c) disastrous (d) dreadful poetry? (a) Poetry means freedom of expression. 2. Pick the quote which best describes Subbu’s (b) One can enjoy poetry when there’s free time. role in Gemini Studios based on the story. (c) In order to write poetry, one needs free time. (d) Poetry means freedom from work. 1. Life’s too short to hang out with people who aren’t resourceful. (iv) Asokamitran says that leisure is a pre-requisite for poetry. He says this because poets 2. The more a person limits himself, the more (a) need to relax for a period of time before resourceful he becomes. composing lines. (b) maintain a leisured pace in all tasks they 3. Success is not about your resources. It’s do. about how resourceful you are with what you have. 278 English CorE-Xii 4. Resourcefulness: Seeing where you want to go and taking the first step. (a) Option 1 (b) Option 2 (c) Option 3 (d) Option 4 3. ‘An extremely talented actress, who was also extremely temperamental, once blew over on the sets’.

Pick the idiom that matches best with ‘blew (c) A jewellery shop over’ (d) A hair-cutting salon (a) At one’s wits end 11. For whom was Gemini studio making films? (b) Get bent out of shape (a) For English people (c) Lave the blues (b) For illiterate (d) Experience pins and needles (c) For elderly peole (d) For simple Tamilians who have no interest 4. ‘Often he looked alone and helpless-a man of in English poetry cold logic in a crowd of dreamers....’ it can be inferred that the man 12. Why is the Englishman’s visit referred as unexplained mystery? (a) rationalised every thought before it was (a) Because of his appearance spoken. (b) Because of his dress (c) Because of his hairstyle (b) failed to consider human emotions and (d) Because of his unfamiliarity and baffled social dynamics. looks (c) was critical of what others did around 13. Who was the Englishman? him. (a) Salman Rushdie (b) D.H Lawrence (d) egoistic and always thought other lacked (c) George Orwell reason. (d) Stephen Spender- Editor of a British Periodical—The Encounter 5. What does his book “My Years with Boss” talk of ? 14. What was MRA? (a) his job (a) British Army (b) The nature of his boss (b) The Moral Rearmament Army- a counter (c) His environment movement to International Communism (d) Impact of movies on every aspect of life in (c) A wing of Indian Army India. (d) A drama company 6. Who was Greta Garbo? 15. Why was MRA invited to Gemini studio? (a) A Swedish actress- an Oscar winner (a) To show their play (b) A German actress (b) Because of political affiliations (c) A French actress (c) Because of political influence (d) A Bengali actress (d) None 7. What was Asokamitran’s job in the studio? 16. Why did everybody in the studio think of (a) To arrange pancakes giving some work to the author? (b) To arrange make-up kits (a) Because of the idle appearance of his work (c) To serve water (b) Because he was an office boy (d) To cut out newspaper clippings on a wide (c) Because he was a helper variety of subjects and store them in files. (d) None 8. What has Asokamitran brought up through 17. Why did the office boy in the make-up room this write up? come to the author? (a) Topics of film industry (b) Topics of make-up industry (a) Because he was unemployed (c) Topics of gossip (b) Because of his interest in literary arts and (d) Topics of heroines film making 9. Who was the founder of Gemini studio? (a) Mr. S.S Vasan (c) To earn money (b) English man (d) To do make-up (c) A Tamil boy (d) A director 18. Why was the author praying for crowd shooting at all times? 10. What has been the make-up room compared to? (a) To attract the crowd (a) A make up company (b) To avoid people (b) A parlour (c) To avoid Epical narrations (d) None PoEts anD PanCakEs 279

19. Why was Subbu a trouble shooter? 27. What does the expression ‘ fiery misery’ mean? (a) Because of his gossip style (a) The glow of lights (b) Because of his flattery (c) Ability to mix up with everyone (b) The bright lights (d) Because of his problem resolving quality (c) The bright colorful dresses of heroines 20. In this lesson, what is the purpose of humor and satire used by the author? (d) Discomfort to the actors in the make-up room (a) To highlight human abilities (b) To show capabilities 28. What things attracted the audience in the (c) To show varied capacities plays staged by MRA? (d) To show and highlight human infancies (a) Their jewellery and flaws (b) Their make up 21. How was Kothamanglam Subbu treated in the Gemini studio? (c) Their dialogues (a) With hatred (d) Their sets and costumes (b) Rudely (c) Disrespectfully 29. Why was Subbu termed as ‘many sided (d) With high respect genius’? 22. How does the author come to know that (a) for his flattery English author was Stephen Spender? (a) From a painting (b) for his gossiping (b) From the newspaper (c) From a television show (c) for his interaction with others (d) From a book- The God that failed (d) for his ability to create and manage things 23. What is the example of National Integration in Poets and Pancakes? Answers (a) Make-up department of Gemini 1. (d) dreadful 2. (c) Option 3 (b) Rehersal room (c) Office of Gemini studio 3. (b) Get bent out of shape (d) None 4. (b) failed to consider human emotions and social 24. Why was Subbu considered number 2 at dynamics. Gemini studio? 5. (d) Impact of movies on every aspect of life in (a) Because of his flattery India. (b) Because of his abilities (c) Because of creative skills 6. (a) A Swedish actress- an Oscar winner (d) None 7. (d) To cut out newspaper clippings on a wide 25. The boy in the make up room was jealous of variety of subjects and store them in files. whom? (a) Actors 8. (a) Topics of film industry (b) Author (c) The visitor 9. (a) Mr. S.S Vasan (d) Subbu’s success and his closeness to the boss 10. (d) A hair-cutting salon 26. What does the expression ‘made to look ugly’ 11. (d) for simple Tamilians who have no interest refer to ? in English poetry (a) Make-up done to look presentable before camera 12. (d) Because of his unfamiliarity and baffled (b) Faces made by actors looks (c) Faces nade by office boy (d) Arrangements in the make-up room 13. (d) Stephen Spender- Editor of a British Periodical–The Encounter 280 English CorE-Xii 14. (b) The Moral Rearmament Army- a counter movement to International Communism 15. (b) Because of political affiliations 16. (a) Because of the idle appearance of his work 17. (b) Because of his interest in literary arts and film making 18. (a) To avoid Epical narrations 19. (d) Because of his problem resolving quality 20. (d) To show and highlight human infancies and flaws 21. (d) With high respect 22. (d) From a book- The God that failed 23. (a) Make-up department of Gemini

24. (c) Because of creative skills Ans. The ‘boy’ in the make-up department would 25. (d) Subbu’s success and his closeness to the boss barge into Ashokamitran’s cubicle to enlighten 26. (a) Make-up done to look presentable before him on how great literary talent was being allowed to go waste in a department fit only camera. for barbers and perverts. The author felt sick 27. (d) Discomfort to the actors in the make-up of his ‘epics’ and prayed that he remained busy with making-up players for the crowd scenes. room 28. (d) Their sets and costumes 6. What general observation does the author 29. (d) For his ability to create and manage things make about the behaviour of the frustrated people and why? II. Short Answer Questions Ans. The author says that a frustrated person 1. Why does the author mention the names of four always directs his anger towards a single heroines? What does he want to emphasize by person openly or covertly. He does so to singling out one of them? explain the conduct of the ‘boy’ in make-up department towards Subbu as the former Ans. The author mentions Greta Garbo, Miss Gohar held the latter responsible for all his woes, and Vyjayantimala, the top heroines in 1950’s ignominy and neglect. and 1960’s, who must have used pancake— thick make-up for the face. Rati Agnihotri, 7. ‘Here was a man who could be inspired who came in the eighties may not have even when commanded.’ What example is given to heard of it. He wants to emphasize that he is illustrate it and what does it highlight? talking of the early 1950s. Ans. The producer would ask Subbu how to do 2. What purpose does the description of the the scene of the rat, who has fought the location of the make-up department and tigress underwater and killed her, tending interior of the make-up room of Gemini her offsprings lovingly. This is a ludicrous Studios serve? situation, but Subbu felt inspired and would suggest four ways of the rat pouring affection Ans. The make-up department of the Gemini on its victim’s offsprings. When asked about Studios was on the upper floor of a building the effectiveness of the scene, Subbu would that was believed to have been Robert Clive’s come out with fourteen more alternatives. stables. The make-up room had the look of a hair cutting salon with lights at all 8. Why does Asokamitran call Subbu “a charitable angles around half a dozen large mirrors. and improvident man” ? This reflects the poor working conditions as compared to the facilities available in modern Ans. Subbu had a genuine love for anyone he came air conditioned make-up rooms. across. His house was a permanent residence for dozens of near and far relations and 3. “A strict hierarchy was maintained in the acquaintances. Subbu was not even conscious make-up department.” Explain. that he was feeding and supporting so many of them. Hence the writer calls Subbu ‘a Ans. The chief make-up man attended to the chief charitable and an improvident man.’ actors and actresses, his senior assistant the ‘second’ hero and heroine, the junior assistant 9. What explanation does the author offer for the main comedian, and so forth. The players Subbu having enemies? who played the crowd were the responsibility of the office boy. Ans. The author suggests that it might be because of his intimacy with the Boss or because 4. What explanation does Asokamitran offer for his general demeanour resembled that of the practice of the make-up men who could a sycophant. It may have been due to his ‘turn any decent–looking person into a hideous readiness to say nice things about everything. crimson hued monster’ ? 10. What did the lawyer do when an extremely Ans. Ashokamitran explains that those were the talented but temperamental actress once blew days of mainly indoor shooting. Then he makes over the sets? What was its result? a humorous remark. The sets and studio lights needed the girls and boys to be made to look Ans. The lawyer quietly switched on the recording ugly in order to look presentable in the movie. equipment. When the actress paused for breath, he played back the recording. She 5. “Soon I was praying for crowd-shooting all the was struck dumb on hearing her own voice. time.” What forced Ashokamitran to make this She never quite recovered from the terror she remark? PoEts anD PanCakEs 281

felt that day. It marked the end of a brief and 16. How did the staff of Gemini Studios react to brilliant acting career. the MRA’s arrival? 11. What made the lawyer lose his job? What does Ans. The staff had a nice time hosting two hundred the writer find so funny about the situation? people of all hues and sizes of at least twenty nationalities. The author found it a pleasant Ans. One day the Boss closed down the Story change from the usual collection of crowd Department. As a result, the lawyer, who players waiting to be slapped with thick layers was on the attendance rolls of the Story of make-up by the office-boy in the make-up Department, lost his job along with other department. writers and poets. The writer calls its “the only instance in all human history where a lawyer 17. What was the suspense about “another visitor” lost his job because the poets were asked to go Gemini Studios was to welcome? home.” Ans. It was said that the visitor was a poet from 12. What does Asokamitran consider a pre- England. The staff was eager to know about requisite for poetry? What evidence do you the poet. It was then said that he was not a find of its existence at the Gemini Studios? poet but an editor. Vasan, the Boss, being the editor of the popular Tamil weekly ‘Ananda Ans. According to Asokamitran, leisure is a pre- Vikatan’ was giving him a big reception. Thus requisite for poetry. The Gemini Studio had a there was a suspense about the visitor. relaxed and leisurely atmosphere. It was the favourite haunt of many distinguished poets, 18. What do you learn about the literary taste who met over a cup of coffee. of the staff of Gemini Studio as for English poetry was concerned? 13. They were all averse to the term ‘Communism’. What notion prevailed in South India about Ans. The staff at Gemini Studios was quite simple. Communists at that time? The only English poets they knew or heard of were Wordsworth and Tennyson. The more Ans. A communist was regarded as a Godless man. literate ones knew of Keats, Shelley and He had no love for children or his wife. He had Byron. One or two might have come to know no pricking of conscience about killing his own about Eliot. parents or his children. He was always out to cause and spread unrest and violence among 19. What did even “the most well-informed” among innocent and ignorant people. the staff come to know about the visiting poet? 14. What notion was in the air about the Moral- Ans. The surmise was that the poet was the editor Rearmament Army? How did it prove absurd? of a daily. It was fuelled by the fact that top What did the author learn later about the men of ‘The Hindu’ were taking the initiative. MRA? Even the most well informed among the staff came to know that he was not from ‘The Ans. Someone called this two hundred strong group Manchester Guardian’ or the ‘London Times.’ an international circus. This description was absurd. First, they were not very good on 20. ‘Prose-writing is not and cannot be the true the trapeze. Secondly, their acquaintance pursuit of a genius.’ Who does the author think with animals was only at the dinner table. it fit for and why? Some years later, the author learnt that the MRA was a kind of counter movement to Ans. The author thinks that prose-writing is for the international communism. patient, persistent, persevering hard worker. His heart is so shrunken that nothing can 15. How did the people of Madras and those at the break it. Rejection slips do not mean anything Gemini Studios respond to the plays staged by to him. He at once sets about making a fresh the Moral Rearmament Army? copy of the long prose piece. Then, he sends it to another editor. He encloses postage for Ans. The people of Madras and those at the Gemini the return of the manuscript. He regards it a Studios were ‘terribly’ impressed. Their two boring, tiring and hard work. plays ‘Jotham Valley’ and ‘The Forgotten Factor’ ran for several shows. The Gemini 21. What kind of effect does Asokamitran’s style family of six hundred saw the plays over and of writing have on the reader? over again along with the other citizens. For some years almost all Tamil plays presented Ans. Ashokamitran has used gentle humour to the scene of sunrise and sunset in the manner highlight the weaknesses and eccentricity of of ‘Jotham Valley.’ 282 English CorE-Xii

the people at the Gemini Studio. This creates for the audience to understand what he was an interesting picture of the people involved saying as the former did not understand with film making there and the way films English. were made as compared to the films made in modern times. III. Long Answer Questions 22. Discuss the significance of the make-up room 1. The ‘Office-boy’ in the make-up department in the chapter, ‘Poets and Pancakes’. of Gemini Studios has the shades of a typical universal character lured by glitter and Ans. The make up room symbolized true national glamour and doomed to frustation. Discuss. integration with people from all over the Or country working together in harmony to cover Attempt a pen-portrait of the ‘office-boy’ the actors with make-up. It was also a place highlighting his aspirations, odd jobs and where a clear hierarchy was maintained in disillusionment as well as his universal the manner the make-up was done to cover dimensions. the actors. The chief make-up man only applied make-up on the lead actors; the senior Ans. The ‘office-boy’ wasn’t exactly a ‘boy’; he was assistant took care of the second lead; the in his early forties. He had entered the studios junior assistant dealt with the comedian while years ago. He had hoped to become a star the actors in the crowd were taken care of by actor, a top screen writer, director or lyrics the ‘office boy’. writer. At present he had to slap paint on the faces of the players who played the crowd. He 23. ‘In all instances of frustration, you will always closed every pore on the surface of the face find the anger directed towards a single person by applying make-up. He felt dissatisfied and openly or covertly...’ disillusioned. He considered the make-up department fits only for barbers and perverts. Do you think it is right to direct our anger He felt frustrated that his great literary talent towards someone who is not responsible for was being allowed to go waste. He was a bit the cause of anger? Justify. of poet too. He had got good formal education and had an encouraging opening in films. Ans. The answer can be answered in both ‘Yes’ or However, in spite of his start, he did not ‘No’ with justification advance an inch from his position as ‘office- boy’. No, I don’t feel it is correct to express one‘s He has shades of universal characters. He is anger at someone who has not harmed you in typical specimen representing the youth lured anyway because that person is often unaware by glitter and glamour of films, struggling of the reason for your anger. For example hard to make a name and then doomed to Subbu had not directly pushed ahead of the frustration. office boy but had been promoted by the owner by virtue of Subbu being a Brahmin. 2. How would you describe Subbu a trouble Moreover Subbu was also very hard working, shooter or a sycophant? creative and resourceful apart from being a Or good writer. All reasons why he deserved to Give an estimate of Subbu’s qualities of head move ahead at the studio. and heart and the reasons for his success. Yes, because it is very upsetting to see Ans. Kothamangalam Subbu was the No. 2 at someone else go ahead of you especially if you Gemini Studios. Though officially on the think you are more deserving. The office boy rolls of Story Department, he was always had been an old hand at the studio but he had with the Boss. He had the ability to look not been promoted yet Subbu went ahead just cheerful at all times. His sense of loyalty because he was a Brahmin. made him identify himself with his principal completely. He turned his entire creativity to 24. The people left in ‘utter bafflement’ after the his advantage. He was tailor-made for films. English poet’s speech. Mention two things Film making was quite easy with Subbu the speaker could have kept in mind before around. He could suggest many alternatives to addressing an audience to avoid such a baffled producers. He could be inspired when reaction: Give your rationale for it. commanded. He had a literary bent of mind Ans. The speaker could have talked about his PoEts anD PanCakEs 283 interest and experience with Communism. Also an interpreter would have made it easier

too. He was a poet and had composed several For some years, almost all Tamil plays had original ‘story poems’. He had also written a a scene of sunrise and sunset in the manner novel. His success in films overshadowed and of ‘Jotham Valley’ with a bare stage, a white dwarfed his literary achievements. He was an background curtain and a tune played on the amazing actor also, but confined himself to flute. This was the impact of the plays staged playing supporting roles. He loved whosoever by the MRA on Madras in general and the he met. He was charitable and improvident Tamil drama community in particular. and played permanent host to dozens of persons. His success was envied by frustrated 5. “In a moment I felt a dark chamber of my people like the ‘office-boy’. mind lit up by a hazy illumination.” Which incident is being referred to by the author, 3. Narrate the incident in which the legal adviser Asokamitran? What conclusion does he arrive was instrumental in causing the end of a brief at? and brilliant acting career. Ans. An English poet (or editor) had been invited Ans. G e m i n i S t u d i o s h a d a n e x t r e m e l y to Gemini Studios. He addressed a dazed and talented actress. She was also extremely silent audience for an hour about the thrills temperamental. Once she blew over on the and travails of an English poet. His accent sets and gave vent to her feelings against the defeated any attempt to understand what producer. Every-body was stunned. The lawyer he was saying. The audience felt baffled— quietly switched on the recording equipment. what was an English poet doing in a studio When the actress paused for breath, the making Tamil films? His visit remained an lawyer played back the recording. There was unexplained mystery. nothing incriminating or unmentionably foul in the actress’s tirade against the producer. Years later, the author read the editor’s name But she was struck dumb on hearing her on the magazine ‘The Encounter’. He also voice again though the sound equipment. came across copies of ‘The God that Failed’—a She was a girl from the countryside and raw collection of six essays against communism. and immature at worldly affairs. She lacked One of the six contributors was Stephen wordly experience and sophistication that Spender. He was the poet that came to persons in position of importance generally Gemini Studios. Suddenly the book assumed acquire. The result was that she never quite tremendous significance. The dark chambers recovered from the terror she felt that day. of his mind were illuminated. The reaction This is how a brief and brilliant acting career to Stephen Spender at Gemini Studios was had unwittingly been brought to a sad end by no longer a mystery. The Boss may not be the legal adviser. concerned with Spender’s poetry, but he was aware of the god that failed. 4. Narrate how the Moral Re-Armament army was welcomed at the Gemini Studios. What 6. How does humour and satire enliven the impact did the MRA have on people of Madras account of the events and personalities at in general and those at Gemini Studios in Gemini Studios as portrayed by Asokamitran particular? in ‘Poets and Pancakes’ ? Ans. The staff of Gemini Studios had a nice Ans. Ashokamitran uses gentle humour and mild time hosting two hundred strong Moral Re- satire to make his account interesting and Armament army led by Frank Buchman. In readable. He uses a rambling and chatty style, fact, MRA could not have found a warmer making transitions from one thought to another host in India than the Gemini Studios. They and thus preparing us for a gentle tickle as he presented two plays—‘Jotham Valley’ and moves on to the next item. For example, he ‘The Forgotten Factor’ in a most professional makes fun of the make-up applied to artists manner. The message of the plays were which can change any decent-looking person usually plain and simple homilies, but the sets into a hideous crimson hued monster. The and costumes were first rate. These plays ran explanation is equally laughter provoking— several shows in Madras. The citizens of the the sets and studio lights needed the girls and city and Gemini family of 600 saw the plays boys to be made to look ugly in order to look over and over again. presentable in the movie. The portraits of the “office-boy” of make-up department, Subbu the 284 English CorE-Xii No. 2 and the legal adviser have many deft

touches of humour. The purpose of the visits The art of film making has undergone a lot of the Moral Re-Armament army and that of change. Real animals have been replaced of the English poet (or editor) is beyond the by computer graphics and a lot of the visuals comprehension of even the most enlightened are created by computers and technology. The ones like the author. The baffled reaction of directors are educated and trained and every the Gemini Studios staff arouses humour. The aspect of film making is meticulously planned mild satire is also directed at people who are before execution. The days of a proprietor averse to communism and go to any length to owned studio has almost been replaced by oppose it. production houses who seen the show. 8. After reading this story, you are impressed by 7. Imagine Asokamitran witnesses a film the author’s use of gentle humour to point out shooting and visits a film set of present day human foibles. Evaluate whether using such Bollywood. humour contributes towards bringing about change in people’s attitude and accepting their As Asokamitran write a diary entry penning foibles. down the transformation you notice between Ans. Humour always succeeds where critical film making of yesteryears and today. remarks fail. Humour helps make light of weakness of character or something wrong Ans. Film making has changed drastically in the with society. The text highlights the weakneses last few decades. The actors no longer have to prevalent in the film making process in the sweat it our in hot furnace like make-up rooms past. The loud make-up that made the actors of the past. They now have fancy, luxurious, look ugly to the manner in which films were air-conditioned vanity vans where they can made without proper planning and with prepare for their shoots in privacy. The make- spontaneous ideas generated on the sets all up artists are educated, skilful and trained point to the flaws in the system. By pointing and their make-up no longer makes them out these flaws, the writer points to the area look horrendous but actually enhances their requiring attention. beauty and makes them look much better and glamorous than their real selves. PoEts anD PanCakEs 285

7 The Interview —Christopher Silvester About the Author the impact and opinion may vary considerably about its function. The interview of Umberto Eco has helped Christopher Silvester (1959) was educated at Lancing him earn his name as a writer. Moreover he has tried College Sussex, and Peter House, Cambridge, where to convince the readers that some interview becomes he read history. From 1983 to 1994, he worked the source of inspiration for them. for Private Eye, initially writing the ‘New Boys’ column. He has written for several newspapers and Summary magazines. He is also the Editor of The Penguin Book of Interviews: An Anthology from 1859 to the Present The Interview Summary Part I Day and the author of The Pimlico Companion to Meetings are typical nowadays. The individuals who Parliament. He currently writes obituaries for the see meets emphatically think of them as a wellspring Times (of London) and book reviews. He is writing of truth and workmanship. Among the antagonistic a three-volume social history of Hollywood for perspectives on interviews is the supposition Pantheon Books. that they are an undesirable, unjustifiable, and superfluous interruption and attack into a man’s Theme private life; they leave individuals injured and destroyed. There are some who have even portrayed ‘The Interview’ written by Christopher Silvester meetings as an experience and a thumbprint on their briefs the new invention ‘Interview’ in the field windpipe. of journalism. Interview that was invented over 130 years has become a commonplace journalism. Yet, in the advanced world, interviews are a Today, every literate or illiterate will have to remarkably workable vehicle of correspondence and experience interview at some points of their life. It help to make impressions of our peers. The questioner is surprising to notice that as an interviewer, each holds a ground-breaking position and impact. one is comfortable, whereas as an interviewee, they feel it much disturbing and diminishing. The Interview Summary Part II It is a passage from a meeting of Prof. Umberto Justification of the Title Eco. In his meeting with Mukund Padmanabhan, Umberto discusses his inclinations, his style, and The title ‘The Interview’ is appropriate as it is the the accomplishment of The Name of the Rose. He heart and soul of the lesson. The pros and cons of the says that his central advantages are philosophical interview are discussed with apt examples in the first and moral, and these are likewise the prevailing part. The part II talks about interview of Umberto subjects of his scholastic work and books. Indeed, Eco who has acquired the sobriquet of intellectual even his books for youngsters are about peacefulness superstardom with the publication of ‘The Name and harmony. of the Rose’. He was a professor who had earned his name and fame in his field. He talked about his He says that there is a perky and individual quality satisfaction and achievement in his writing. He also in his works, which is an embraced one. He found revealed that he wrote in interstices. He was not his style when he presented his doctoral theory. His like his friend Roland Barthes. He openly admitted theory recounted an account of his examination, that his success in the novel, The Name of the Rose his preliminaries, and blunders. He, at that point, depended on the timing of its publication. created his preference for portrayal. Henceforth his scholarly works are not dry and exhausting. Message He explains how he uses even the briefest holes in the “The Interview” deals with the importance of middle of two unique bits of errand that give others a interview as essential part of literature. With time fallacious impression that he is doing endless things. its advent is more acceptable in journalism. However, He calls these holes’ interstices’. Working during these interstices makes him do some incredible things. 286

The Name of the Rose was a splendid achievement and one takes a photographic portrait of somebody then brought him awesome popularity. Its prosperity might one is stealing that person’s soul. V. S. Naipaul be a direct result of the troublesome understanding ‘feels that some people are wounded by interviews experience and interpretative perusing that is offered and lose a part of themselves,’ to the peruser who didn’t generally look for simple understanding encounters. Questions Conclusion of the Interview (i) What are the positive points people make about The exposition is a concentrate from the Introduction interviews? to The Penguin Book of Interviews. It examines the (a) It is an enjoyable session where one can talk meeting as a correspondence type that has come to and laugh. remain. The conclusion of The Interview includes the (b) It is a source of truth and in its practice, an views from the point of journalism and the stars and art. their insight into the part of their lives. (c) One comes to know people better. (d) One comes to know the thinking and inner CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL feelings of the person being interviewed. Technique of Interview (ii) How do celebrities usually consider themselves ● Interview has become a vital fact of everyone’s life, when being interviewed? (a) As victims of the interview. regardless of the class, literary or other activities. (b) As heroes of the interview. (c) As something which has to be done and got ● It enables us to know the opinion of many over. celebrities. (d) they are indifferent to all types of interview. ● The author talks about the technique of ‘interview’ (iii) Why do celebrities usually despise interviews? as a new way of interrogating facts. (a) They hate talking about their personal lives. (b) They are usually introverts who like to be ● He also discuses the functions, methods and left alone. merits of an interview. (c) They consider interviews as unwarranted intrusions into their lives. Interview with Umberto ECO (d) They don’t want to share their lives with ● In this part, the author incorporates an excerpt others. from the writer, Umberto Eco. (iv) What are V.S. Naipaul’s views on interview? (a) It is an enjoyable experience. ● Here we get a glimpse of his literacy method. (b) People are wounded, and lose a part of themselves. ● He is a professor at the University of Bologna in (c) Interviews bring celebrities and their Italy. audience closer to one another. (d) People like talking about interviews more ● He enjoys a daunting status as a scholar for his than giving interviews. philosophies on semiotics (the study of sings), literary interpretation and medieval aesthetics. (v) How do interviews ‘wound’ people who are interviewed? ● His interview with Mukund Padmanabhan (a) By invading their privacy. centres around the successful novel, The Name of (b) By highlighting their achievements. the Rose’. (c) By expressing their opinion about them. (d) By criticizing them all the time. Views of some famous personalities included. ● The author also quotes the views of some famous (vi) Why are taking photographs of people not allowed in some cultures? celebrities about interview. The names include V.S. Naipaul, Lewis Carroll, Rudyard Kipling, Answers H.G. Wells and Saul Bellow. (i) (b) It is a source of truth and in its practice, an art. Type. I RefeRence To conTexT (ii) (a) As victims of the interview. Read the extracts given below and attempt the (iii) (c) They consider interviews as unwarranted questions that follow: intrusions into their lives. 1. Some might make quite extravagant claims for it as being, in its highest form, a source of truth, and, in thE intErviEW 287 its practice, an art. Others, usually celebrities who see themselves as its victims, might despise the interview as an unwarranted intrusion into their lives, or feel that it somehow diminishes them, just as in some primitive cultures it is believed that if

(iv) (b) People are wounded, and lose a part of Answers themselves. (i) (a) A crime, an assault which merits punishment. (v) (a) By invading their privacy. (ii) (a) Mark Twain (vi) They feel it is a way of stealing their souls. (iii) (c) Thumbprints on his windpipe. (iv) (d) As a supremely serviceable medium of 2. Yet Kipling had himself perpetrated such an ‘assault’ on Mark Twain only a few years before. communication. H. G. Wells in an interview in 1894 referred to ‘the interviewing ordeal’, but was a fairly frequent (v) (a) to do something wrong interviewee and forty years later found himself (vi) Some people regard interview as an ‘ordeal’ interviewing Joseph Stalin. Saul Bellow, who has consented to be interviewed on several occasions, because they feel it reduces their importance nevertheless once described interviews as being like thumbprints on his windpipe. Yet despite 3. I remember that my dear friend Roland Barthes the drawbacks of the interview, it is a supremely was always frustrated that he was an essayist serviceable medium of communication. and not a novelist. He wanted to do creative writing one day or another but he died before he Questions could do so. I never felt this kind of frustration. I started writing novels by accident. I had nothing (i) How did Kipling view interviews? to do one day and so I started. Novels probably (a) A c r i m e , a n a s s a u l t w h i c h m e r i t s satisfied my taste for narration. punishment. Mukund: Talking about novels, from being (b) A delight, a relaxing event where one can a famous academic you went on to becoming talk about oneself. spectacularly famous after the publication of The Name of the Rose. (c) It is like someone trying to choke you to get information out of you. Questions (d) It is refreshing like the morning dew (i) Why was Roland Barthes always frustrated? settling on the leaves. (a) He could not write essays which he wanted to do. (ii) Whom did Kipling assault with an interview? (b) He was an essayist and not a novelist. (a) Mark Twain (b) Lewis Carroll (c) His novels would not sell. (c) H.G. Wells (d) Saul Bellow (d) His short stories sold at a very slow rate. (iii) How did Saul Bellow view interviews? (ii) Why didn’t Umberto Eco feel frustrated like his (a) An interesting conversation between two friend? people. (b) A very pleasant experience of chatting (iii) What type of style did Umberto Eco use for his together. (c) Thumbprints on his windpipe. writing? (d) As bad as stale food being eaten and getting (a) Expository (b) Persuasive an upset stomach. (c) Descriptive (d) Narrative (iv) How does the author describe the interview? (iv) The publication of which book of Umberto made (a) A wasting of time which one can put to him famous? better use. (a) The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana (b) A method by which the public comes to know (b) The Name of the Rose the life of celebrities. (c) The Prague Cemetery (d) Faucault’s Pendulum (c) A useful interaction with people to know their thoughts, likes, etc. (v) ‘I never felt this kind of frustration’. What does the speaker refer to by the world ‘this’? (d) As a supremely serviceable medium of (a) He refers to his own frustration of not being communication. able to write a novel. (b) He refers to Roland’s frustration of not (v) The word ‘perpetrated’ means ..... being able to write a novel. (a) to do something wrong (c) He refers to his frustration when his book (b) to do something right was a failure. (d) He refers to Roland’s frustration with the (c) to avoid doing something quality of his essays. (d) to make sure you do something useful (vi) Why do some people refer to interview as an ‘ordeal’? 288 English CorE-Xii

(vi) What does the world ‘academic’ mean in this (b) He hates going out for a walk. context? (c) He thinks it is better to watch T.V. than (a) A place where one studies like a college or university. read a book. (b) A place where people store books. (d) He enjoys it and he needs it. (c) A collection of books. (d) A person who teaches or researches at a (iii) What did Eco’s publisher anticipate about the sale college or university. of ‘The Name of the Rose’? Answers (iv) According to Eco what was the reason for the (i) (b) He was an essayist and not a novelist. success of his book? (ii) He did’t feel so because he had started writing (a) It was a thriller. novels by accident at the age of 50. (b) It dealt with metaphysics. (c) The success of the book has a mystery. (iii) (d) Narrative (d) The book was advertised well in advance. (iv) (b) The Name of the Rose (v) (a) He refers to his own frustrations of not being (v) How do we know that Eco’s publisher was surprised by the success of ‘The Name of the able to write a novel. Rose’? (a) She had expected to sell 3 million copies in (vi) (a) A place where one studies like a college or the US. university. (b) She had expected to sell only 3000 copies. 4. And this is because journalists and publishers (c) She had enjoyed reading it. believe that people like trash and don’t like (d) She liked references to the cathedral and difficult reading experiences. Consider there are Latin studies. six billion people on this planet. The Name of the Rose sold between 10 and 15 million copies. (vi) The Journalist had misjudged the readers by So in a way I reached only a small percentage of saying that readers. But it is exactly these kinds of readers (a) people did not enjoy reading trash. who don’t want easy experiences. Or at least (b) people did not enjoy. Eco’s style of don’t always want this. I myself, at 9 pm after writing. dinner, watch television and want to see either (c) people did not enjoy reading about heavy ‘Miami Vice’ or ‘Emergency Room’. I enjoy it and I stuff like medieval history. need it. But not all day. Mukund: Could the huge (d) people loved novels based on medieval success of the novel have anything to do with the history. fact that it dealt with a period of medieval history that... Umberto Eco: That’s possible. But let me Answers tell you another story, because I often tell stories (i) (b) People like reading trash and not difficult like a Chinese wise man. My American publisher reading. said while she loved my book, she didn’t expect (ii) (d) He enjoys it and he needs it. to sell more than 3,000 copies in a country where nobody has seen a cathedral or studies Latin. So (iii) Eco’s publisher expected that only about 3,000 I was given an advance for 3,000 copies, but in copies of the book would be sold. the end it sold two or three million in the U.S. (iv) (c) The success of the book was a mystery. Questions (v) (b) She had expected to sell only 3000 (i) What belief do most journalists and publishers copies. have? (vi) (a) people did not enjoy reading trash (a) Very few people read at all. (b) People like reading trash and not difficult 5. Maybe I give the impression of doing many reading. things. But in the end, I am convinced I am (c) The more they publish, the more satisfaction always doing the same thing… And then I have they get. a secret. Did you know what will happen if you (d) Stories should be entertaining for people eliminate the empty spaces from the universe, who read them. eliminate the empty spaces in all the atoms? The universe will become as big as my fist. Similarly, (ii) Why does Umberto Eco watch television at 9 p.m? we have a lot of empty spaces in our lives. I call (a) He has nothing else to do. them interstices. Say you are coming over to my place. You are in an elevator and while you thE intErviEW 289

are coming up, I am waiting for you. This is Choose the literary device that best describes an interstice, an empty space. I work in empty spaces. what Eco does with the concepts of ‘empty spaces’ and ‘waiting’. Questions (a) Juxtaposition (b) Irony (i) Read the questions given below. Imagine they (c) Oxymoron (d) Symbolism were interjections raised by the interviewer based on the above extract. Choose the option (v) According to Eco which of the following can be that correctly describes the given questions. defined as ‘interstices’?........... (1) If you are “always doing the same thing”, isn’t your work lacking in originality? (a) Waiting for a visitor to arrive (2) Could you elaborate on these larger ethical, (b) Eating lunch or dinner philosophical interests that inform your (c) Sleeping at night work? (d) Talking to friends (3) All writing happens in empty spaces. In (vi) What trait of Eco’s character is revealed in the fact, why don’t I tell you all about my above extract? experiences? Answers (a) (1) is not relevant; (2) is appropriate; and (3) is unnecessary (i) (c) (1) is inappropriate; (2) is relevant; and (3) is not relevant (b) (1) is appropriate; (2) is repetitive; and (3) is useful information (ii) (b) Big Exposé: Eco’s Secret Revealed! (c) (1) is inappropriate; (2) is relevant; and (iii) (c) Options (i) and (iii) (3) is not relevant (d) (1) is unnecessary; (2) is intrusive; and (iv) (b) irony (3) is extrapolatory (v) (a) Waiting for a visitor to arrive (ii) Based on your reading of Part I of ‘The Interview’, which one of the following may NOT (vi) He was able to do so many things simul- be an appropriate title to the above extract? taneously. (a) The Empty Spaces of Umberto Eco (b) Big Exposé: Eco’s Secret Revealed! 6. Saul Bellow, who has consented to be interviewed (c) “I am always doing the same thing”: Eco’s on several occasions, nevertheless once described Echoes interviews as being like thumbprints on his (d) Umberto Eco, Mr. Prolific! windpipe. Yet despite the drawbacks of the interview, it is a supremely serviceable medium (iii) “I work in empty spaces”. Choose the option of communication. “These days, more than at that most accurately captures Eco’s idea of any other time, our most vivid impressions of our empty spaces. contemporaries are through interviews,” Denis (i) management of time Brian has written. “Almost everything of moment (ii) organization of space reaches us through one man asking questions of (iii) philosophical inclination another. Because of this, the interviewer holds a (iv) command of thought position of unprecedented power and influence.” (a) Options (i) and (ii) Questions (b) Options (iii) and (iv) (i) How would you describe Denis Brian’s opinion on interviews? Choose the most appropriate (c) Options (i) and (iii) option. (d) Options (ii) and (iv) (1) Appeasing (2) Utilitarian (iv) Umberto Eco states that ‘empty spaces’ actually (3) Approving (4) Praising fill spaces, and without them the universe would be the size of the human fist. He also (a) Options (1) and (2) goes on to say that it is in an interstice such (b) Options (3) and (4) as waiting, which the dictionary defines as a (c) Options (2) and (3) time for pause, that he works. That is, passive waiting is essentially active writing time. (d) Options (1) and (4) 290 English CorE-Xii (ii) According to Saul Bellow, interviews are like thumbprints on his windpipe. What emotion might best describe such an image? (a) Sadness (b) Frustration (c) Pain (d) Fear

(iii) Denis Brian states that the interviewer (b) Because it was becoming popular occupies a position of power and influence as ___________ (c) Because of its high rated success (a) everything reaches us through one man (d) None asking questions of another. 3. What was Lewis Caroll’s opinion of interviews (b) the interview is a supremely serviceable and autographs? medium of communication. (a) Wonder (b) Terror (c) o u r m o s t v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n s o f o u r (c) Horror (d) None contemporaries are through interviews. 4. Which period of history do Umberto’s novels (d) interviews are like thumbprints on the deal with? interviewee’s windpipe. (a) Renaissance (b) Dark age (iv) The use of the word “serviceable” implies that (c) Modern era (d) Medieval period interviews are _________ 5. Why did Umberto start writing novels? (a) To avail an opportunity (a) significant. (b) powerful. (c) advanced. (d) useful. (b) To be in limelight (c) To share his views (v) What does the narrator mean when he says (d) To make best use of empty spaces means ‘interviews as being like thumbprints on his windpipe’? free time (vi) Interviews are helpful in 6. What facts are being showcased in the interview (a) giving the most confusing impression of the held between Eco and Padamanabhan? interviewee. (a) He takes pride in being an academician, a (b) giving the most vivid impression of the university Professor first interviewer. (b) Being a novelist is a secondary thing for (c) giving the most vivid impression of the him interviewee. (c) uses his free time for writing novels (d) giving the most clear understanding of the interviews in general. (d) All these Answers 7. What do his works for children speak about ? (i) (c) Options (2) and (3) (a) His passion for children (ii) (c) Pain (b) Children are nuisance (iii) (a) everything reaches us through one man asking questions of another. (c) Children love to be happy (d) Non-violence and peace (iv) (d) useful. 8. Explain ‘Denis Brain’s statement “Almost (v) He means that he felt choked and suffocated everything of moment reaches us through one man asking questions of others.’ when he sat for interview. (a) The interviewer has the power (vi) (c) giving the most vivid impression of the interviewee. (b) The interviewer has status Type II. TexT-Based QuesTIons (c) The interviewer can elicit the truth and has the power to influence I. Multiple Choice Questions (d) All of the above 1. What do Rudyard Kipling and his wife express 9. ‘An Interview is a supremely serviceable about interviews? medium of communication’ is a ....... (a) a medium to gossip (a) Immoral (b) Not good (b) a medium to be the talk of the town (c) a medium to prosper (c) Very bad (d) a noble medium of interaction and (d) Immoral and offensive crime against a introspection person 10. What satisfied Umberto’s taste for narration? 2. Why were the journalists and publishers (a) Stories (b) Children’s works puzzled by the success of The Name of the (c) Interviews (d) Novels Rose? 11. What do you understand by the expression (a) Because readers like trash and it was a ‘Thumbprints on his windpipes”? serious novel thE intErviEW 291

(a) Creating excessive pressure on throat 19. According to Umberto what will happen to the (b) Creating excessive pressure on vocal chords world if we eliminate empty spaces from the universe? (c) Creating excessive pressure and tension (a) The world will become beautiful for someone (b) The world will be completely ours (c) The world will shrink and will become as (d) None big as a fist. (d) The world will be round 12. At what age did Umberto Eco start writing novels? Answers 1. (d) Immoral and offensive crime against a (a) At the age of 55 person 2. (a) Because readers like trash and it was a (b) At the age of 52 serious novel (c) At the age of 57 3. (c) Horror 4. (d) Medieval period (d) At the age of 50 5. (d) To make best use of empty spaces means free time 13. Why do most celebrity writers despise being 6. (d) All of the above interviewed? 7. (d) Non-violence and peace 8. (d) All of the above (a) They don’t like journalists 9. (d) A n o bl e m e d i u m o f i n ter a ction a n d (b) Unwarranted intrusion in their life introspection (c) Their privacy is hurt 10. (d) Novels (d) None 11. (c) Creating excessive pressure and tension for 14. What is the reason for huge success of the someone novel The Name of the Rose ? 12. (d) At the age of 50 13. (b) Unwarranted intrusion in their life (a) mystic 14. (d) All of the above 15. (d) Using empty spaces (free times) like waiting (b) metaphysics and medieval history period used for someone, break time 16. (d) Varied opinions of celebrities regarding an (c) detective style and theology interview (d) All of the above 17. (d) A serious one 18. (a) Because of its power, influence and medium 15. How does Umberto Eco find so much time to write so much? of communication 19. (c) The world will shrink and will become as big (a) Using early morning time as a fist. (b) Using his office time II. Short Answer Questions (c) Using his family time 1. How can you justify the importance of (d) Using empty spaces (free times) like interview in modern journalism? waiting for someone, break time Ans. The interview is the most serviceable medium 16. What did the author present in this book? of communication in the modern times. It has (a) varied opinions of politicians become a commonplace of journalism. Several thousand celebrities have been interviewed (b) varied opinions of civilians over the years. We come to know about them only through interviews. (c) varied opinions of armymen 2. What was the attitude of Lewis Carroll (d) varied opinions of celebrities regarding an towards interview? How would he react to it? interview Ans. Lewis Carroll feared an interviewer. He never 17. What kind of novel was The Name of The Rose? consented to be interviewed. He feared being lionized and repelled would-be acquaintances, (a) Hilarious (b) Fiction (c) Non-fiction (d) A serious one 18. In what way interviews have become a common place of journalism? (a) because of its power, influence and medium of communication (b) because of its pomp (c) because of its glory (d) because of its rapport 292 English CorE-Xii

interviewers, and the persistent petitioners for 8. What is the general impression created by his autograph. He felt satisfied and amused at Umberto Eco’s output? How does he react to silencing all such people. it? 3. Who is V.S. Naipaul? What does he say about Ans. The diversity and volume of Umberto’s output interview? baffles people. Even David Lodge, the English novelist and academic once remarked that he Ans. V.S. Naipaul is a celebrated cosmopolitan could not understand how one man could do all writer. He has written novels, travel books the things Eco did. Eco admits that he might and documentary works. He presents his have given the impression of doing many impression of India, the country of his things but he is convinced that he is always ancestors, in them. He says that some people doing the same thing. are wounded by interviews and lose a part of themselves. 9. “I am convinced I am always doing the same thing”, Umberto Eco. How does he explain it? 4. Why did Rudyard Kipling refuse to be interviewed? Ans. Eco says that he pursues his philosophical interests through his academic work and his Ans. Kipling considered an interview as immoral. novels. Even his books for children are about For him it was a crime in the same category non-violence and peace. These are the same as an offence against his person, as an assault bunch of ethical, philosophical interests. and it merited just as much punishment. He called it cowardly and vile. No respectable man 10. What secret does Umberto Eco reveal about would ask it, much less give it. his time management? 5. What disparity between Kipling’s attitude Ans. Eco explains that time management is a towards the interviewer do you notice in the secret. He works in empty spaces. There are chapter, ‘The Interview’ ? a lot of empty spaces in our lives. He calls them interstices. Suppose someone is coming Ans. Kipling had quite a condemnatory attitude in an elevator from the first to the third floor towards the interviewer. The diary entry of his to Eco’s place and he is waiting for the man. wife, Caroline, for 14 October 1892 states that During this interstice, Eco has already written their day was ruined by two reporters from an article. Boston. Yet Kipling had himself committed such an “assault” on Mark Twain only a few 11. What do you learn about Umberto Eco’s years before. writing style from ‘The Interview’.? 6. What drawbacks of interview have been Ans. Eco’s essays have a narrative aspect. He has pointed out by celebrities who consented to adopted an informal approach. Even his non- be interviewed several times? What does this fictional writing, his scholarly work has a reveal? playful and personal quality about it. It shows a marked departure from the regular academic Ans. H.G. Wells and Saul Bellow are two celebrities style—which is usually depersonalised and who consented to be interviewed several often dry and boring. times. In 1894, H.G. Wells referred to ‘the interviewing ordeal’. Saul Bellow once 12. What problem did Roland Barthes face? Did described interviews as being like thumbprints Eco suffer from it? on his windpipe. This shows that even lovers of interview have a deep inherent fear of being Ans. Ronald Barthes was an essayist. He felt interviewed. frustrated that he was not a novelist. He wanted to do creative writing, but he died 7. What do you learn about Umberto Eco’s before he could do so. Eco never felt such kind creative work from ‘The Interview’ ? of frustration. His essays have a narrative aspect. Novels too satisfied his taste for Ans. Umberto Eco is a versatile genius, a prolific narration. writer. He has written on wide ranging subjects such as literary fiction, academic 13. How, according to Umberto Eco, did he become texts, essays, children’s book and newspaper a novelist? articles. As against 5 novels he has 40 non- fiction works to his credit which show his Ans. Umberto Eco says that he started writing scholarship. novels by accident. He had nothing to do one day and so he started. He admits that novels thE intErviEW 293

probably satisfied his taste for narration. He did not expect very good response in America started writing novels at the age of 50 or so. because in this country nobody had seen a cathedral or studied Latin. In other words, 14. How does Umberto Eco react to the observation, people were ignorant about the medieval past “Oh, he’s the novelist” ? What reasons does he there. offer? 20. Justify the title, ‘The Interview’. Ans. The comment bothers Eco because he considers himself an academic scholar first and a Ans. The title of the excerpt is quite apt and novelist later. He says, “I consider myself logical. Umberto Eco reveals certain facts a university professor who writes novels in the interview. He prefers to be called an on Sundays.” He participates in academic academician than a novelist. He is more conferences and identifies himself with the interested in scholarly non-fictional writing. academic community. His non-fictional writings are 40 compared to his 5 novels. He started writing novels at the 15. What has made Umberto Eco popular among age of 50 just by accident. He writes novels the people and how? occasionally. He says that he is a professor who writes novels on Sundays. Ans. It is Umberto Eco’s novels that have made him popular among the people. Ten to fifteen 21. Was the medieval historical background the million copies of the novel ‘The Name of the reason of the huge success of ‘The Name of the Rose’ were sold. Eco admits that he reaches a Rose’ ? What, according to Umberto Eco, was larger audience by writing novels. He cannot the reason of its huge success? expect to have one million readers with his book on semiotics. Ans. The interviewer Mukund Padmanabhan thinks that ‘The Name of the Rose’ achieved a 16. What sort of novel is ‘The Name of the Rose’ ? huge success because of its medieval historical Who must have been puzzled at its success? background. Umberto Eco doesn’t seem to agree with him. Many books had already been Ans. ‘The Name of the Rose’ is a very serious written about medieval past earlier. They novel. It is a detective story at one level. But didn’t got that much success. He thinks that it also probes into metaphysics, theology and the success of the book was a mystery. Perhaps medieval history. Eco was not puzzled at its it came at the appropriate time. If it had come huge success, but journalists and publishers ten years earlier or later, perhaps it would not were. have been such a huge success. 17. “Journalists are puzzled. And sometimes 22. Why do you think Christopher Silvester publishers”, says Umberto Eco. What describes the viewpoints of other writers arguments does he offer to support his and authors when discussing the concept contention? of an interview? Support your opinion with reference to any one writer cited. Ans. Eco says that journalists and publishers believe that people like trash and don’t like Ans. To show that the viewpoints of people vary difficult reading experience. But there are considerably regarding an interview, is the readers who don’t want easy experiences and reason why Christopher describes this. Some not always or all times. He too watches light people feel that in its highest form it is a source entertainment on T.V. after dinner. He enjoys of truth while others feel they are victims it and needs it, but not all day. of an unwanted intrusion into their lives. In Naipaul’s words ‘People are wounded, by 18. Why was Umberto Eco given an advance for interviews and lose a part of themselves.’ 3000 copies only? 23. H o w w o u l d y o u e v a l u a t e M u k u n d Ans. Eco’s American publisher told him that she Padmanabhan as an interviewer? Mention at loved her book, but she didn’t expect to sell least two qualities he displays in his interview, more than 3000 copies there. So Eco was given supported by textual evidence. an advance for 3,000 copies only. But in the end it sold two or three million in the U.S. Ans. Mukund Padmanabhan appears to be a meticulous and respectful interviewer. It is 19. Why, do you think, did the American publisher evident that he has thoroughly researched think that the novel ‘The Name of the Rose’ about his interviewee (Umberto Eco). He won’t sell well in America? Ans. The novel ‘The Name of the Rose’ dealt with a period of medieval history. The publisher 294 English CorE-Xii

is respectful in his behaviour and does not Despite all these drawbacks, interviews help interrupt him while Eco is speaking. He has us to learn about our contemporaries and form indepth knowledge of Eco’s work and asks him opinions. In short, interviews act like mirrors interesting and relevant questions like how he to reflect the personality of the interviewee. feels on being recognised as a novelist rather than as an academician. He also discusses the 2. What impression do you form about Umberto immense popularity of his novel ‘The Name of Eco as a scholar and writer on the basis of ‘The The Rose’ and how he feels about its success. Interview’ ? 24. Christopher Silvester shares author’s Ans. Umberto Eco impresses us a person who reservations about interviewing. Bearing that remains frank and modest in spite of achieving in mind, would you interview a writer of your intellectual super stardom. Success usually choice? If so, what would you pay particular makes people arrogant, but we discover no attention to in interviewing the said writer? trace of it in his personality. He is a level headed person whose priorities are well Ans. Yes, I would love to interview Ruskin Bond, defined. Though he has achieved phenomenal an author, I enjoy reading. I would keep my success with the publication of his novel ‘The questions focussed on his art of writing, the Name of the Rose’ of which about 10 million source of his ideas, the other hobbies that he copies have been sold, he regards novel as enjoyed etc., but steer clear of asking him a means of reaching a larger audience. He any questions that might seem intrusive, frankly admits that he could not even expect disrespectful and gossipy. to have one million readers with his scholarly book on semiotics. He regards himself an III. Long Answer Questions academic scholar first and a novelist later. He frankly admits that he started writing 1. ‘Yet, despite the drawbacks of the interview, novels by accident. Now he is a professor who it is a supremely serviceable medium of writes novels on Sundays. Compared to his communication.’ Highlight the importance of five novels, he has more than forty non-fiction interview, its drawbacks and positive aspects work to his credit, which show his scholarship. and reactions of celebrity writers on the basis He explains that he works in interstices or of the chapter, ‘The Interview’. empty spaces. This is the mystery behind so much of his output. Or 3. How does Umberto Eco pursue his philosophical “ ... it is hardly surprising that opinions of and academic interests? How does he make use the interview—of its functions, methods and of ‘interstices’ ? What are the distinguishing merits—vary considerably.” Elucidate. features of his non-fictional style? Ans. Although ‘Interview’ as a literary genre is Ans. Umberto Eco has many philosophical interests. not more than 150 years old, it has become He pursues them through his academic works an important tool for the journalists. Several and novels. Even his books for children are thousand celebrities have been interviewed about non-violence and peace. They are the over the years, and some of them repeatedly. same bunch of ethical and philosophical Opinions differ. Some consider it a source of interests. Eco has written more than 40 truth and an art. Others despise the interview scholarly non-fictional works. Among them as an unwarranted intrusion into their lives. is a seminal work on semiotics. He prefers to The celebrities see themselves as its victims. be called an academician. He participates in They feel that it somehow diminishes them. academic conferences and not in the meetings of pen clubs and writers. He identifies himself V.S. Naipaul feels that some people are with the academic community. He declares wounded by interviews and lose a part that he is a university professor who writes of themselves. Lewis Carroll was said to novels on Sundays. have had ‘a just horror of the interviewer’. Rudyard Kipling considered interview as an Umberto Eco shares a secret with the assault. H.G. Wells, who was a fairly frequent interviewer. He thinks that if we eliminate the interviewee, has referred to ‘the interviewing empty spaces from the universe the world will ordeal.’ Saul Bellow, who was interviewed on several occasions, once described interviews thE intErviEW 295 as being like thumbprints on his windpipe.

shrink. It will become as big as a fist. Similarly Umberto Eco gives an example to illustrate we have a lot of empty spaces or interstices in that no one can judge the mood of the reading our lives. He works in these empty spaces and public. His American publishers gave him uses them to his advantage. an advance for only 3,000 copies. But 2 to 3 million copies were sold in the USA alone. Umberto Eco has evolved a distinct non- The total sale was between 10 and 15 million fictional style. It is different from the regular copies. Umberto Eco thinks that ‘The Name of academic style which is usually ‘depersonalised the Rose’ was written at the most appropriate and often dry and boring.’ Padmanabhan finds time. If it had been written ten years earlier a certain playful and personal quality about or later, it would not have been such a huge his scholarly work. Eco admits that his essays success. have a narrative aspect. This narrative style of his scholarly works was fully developed later 5. Imagine that you are Christopher Silvester. on in his novels. You have been invited to a seminar series titled–‘Ethics and Techniques of Interviewing’. 4. How did Umberto Eco start writing novels and when? What does he prefer to be called—a The organisers would like you to speak about novelist or a scholar? What does he say about the challenges of conducting interviews, and the huge success of his novel ‘The Name of the skills interviewers must have in order to Rose’ in spite of it being a difficult and a very conduct good and ethical interviews. serious novel? Based on your reading of The Interview, Part Ans. Umberto Eco admits that he became a novelist I and II, draft your speech including relevant just by accident. He started writing novels at details from the text in support of your a late age of 50, more or less. He has written answer. only five novels against his more than forty non-fictional writings. He prefers to be Ans. Good afternoon. It gives me great pleasure called an academician though most people to interact with you all on a very interesting know him as a novelist. He says that he is a topic-‘Ethics and Techniques of Interviewing’. professor who writes novels on Sundays. Thus I have been a journalist for the last decade or writing novels is his secondary and occasional so and have certain rules of interviewing that occupation. I follow rigidly. The novel ‘The Name of the Rose’ was The most important rule is to know your published in 1980. More than 10 million copies boundaries–the questions that you can ask were sold and Eco acquired the equivalent and those that are intrusive as the famous of intellectual superstardom with it. The writer V.S. Naipaul said ‘Interviewers feel interviewer asks what can be the possible that some people are wounded by interviews reason of its huge success. Perhaps it can be and lose a part of themselves.’ Infact did you the medieval background of the novel. But know that Lewis Carroll, the famous writer of Umberto does not seem to believe it. He says Alice in Wonderland refused to give interviews that a lot of books have been written earlier while Rudyard Kipling felt interviews were about the medieval past. All of them did not immoral and an ‘assault’ against him. Some get that much popularity and success. Even people like Saul Bellow who felt suffocated he can’t understand the phenomenal success while giving an interview called it ‘thumb of ‘The Name of the Rose’. It is a mystery even prints on his windpipe’. Therefore before to him. interviewing anyone I research well about my interviewee and make sure that I never Eco agrees that ‘The Name of the Rose’ is ask him/her any personal questions. All I a difficult and quite serious novel. It has focus on is the area in which the person has proved the journalists and publishers wrong. excelled his art or music, his beliefs etc. So They think that people like only ‘trash’ or that he/she feels comfortable while answering something light. They don’t like difficult my questions. If someone does not want to reading. However, the success of ‘The Name speak on any area I change my questions. of the Rose’ has shown that people like serious Respect and good manners are very important and difficult readings also. 296 English CorE-Xii

tools that every journalist should carry in his 7. Part I of ‘The Interview’ is an excerpt from the toolkit. It opens all doors and heart of people. Penguin Book of Interviews. Do you think that the extract to present to balanced perspective Thank you about interviews? 6. Mukund Padmanabhan was gifted the Substantiate your answer with relavant textual ‘Penguin Book of Interviews-An Anthology details. If this were the entire introduction, from 1859 to the Present Day’ edited by what would your expectation from the book Christopher Silvester, after interviewing Eco. be? He shared his thoughts on his personal blog Ans. No, to the contrary I feel that the excerpt exploring his own concerns about interviewing actually shows the true picture of interviews a distinguished writer Eco, followed by an and the manner in which they are conducted. evaluation of the interview in light of his Infact these days the interviewer is only reading. As Mukund Padmanabhan write a looking for a scoop-something sensational blog post. about the interviewee which will help his magazine or newspaper to sell like, hot cakes. Ans. Reading Christopher Silvester’s book about Most of the time interviewers are intrusive interviews (The Penguin Book of Interviews– braised and openly hostile while interviewing An Anthology from 1859 to the Present Day) celebrities. They are not interested in their was like reaffirming my ‘belief about the way success stories or their achievements. All celebrities especially authors view interviews. they want is some dirty dark secret which Getting Umberto Eco to speak on his writing can ruin their achievement and portray them and his role as an academician and author in poor light to the readers. This is an era was quite challenging initially. However I of sensational news and journalism. Pulling made sure to keep the questions away from people down, criticizing them, quoting them his personal life and only focussed on his role out of context gives them immense pleasure as a writer. Infact I feel I have been very lucky because normal interviews are too dull and with the wealth of information that I was able boring for their taste. to get about Eco’s style of writing during the interview. He was quite open with his views, From the given introduction book to showcase articulate and not shy of voicing his opinion. I views of many other famous people who had am grateful that the interview turned out to be mixed opinion about the interviews that they so informative and interesting an I think Eco’s had to face as a by-product of their fame and friendly and warm behaviour was a testament success. It would be interesting to read bout to my ability to question him without being these opinions and reasons for either liking or intrusive and nosy. disliking interviews in general. thE intErviEW 297

8 Going Places —A.R. Barton About the Author Sophie aspires to run a store where she will work as a manager and she will save the money to have A.R. Barton is a modern writer, who lives in Zurich her own boutique. She happens to be an incorrigible and writes in English. His stories are based on dreamer. Sometimes she dreams to be an actress problems concerning adolescents. In ‘Going Places’, and sometimes a fashion designer. Sophie’s hero is Barton explores the subject of adolescent fantasising a young football player named Danny Casey. She and hero worship. began to believe that she had actually met Danny Casey. Her continuous thoughts of Danny Casey Theme becomes the cause of her hopes and disappointments. Sophie’s father disapproves of her dreams. Sophie’s The whole story is about unrealistic dreams that elder brother Geoff is an apprentice mechanic and have little possibility of coming true. This is when an enigmatic character. She reveals her dream of disappointment makes its entrance into life. The having met Danny Casey. She describes it as a chance story seem to hint that it is okay to dream, but dream encounter. Geoff does not believe her. She tells with limits. Geoff not to tell anyone about the fact that Danny Casey had asked her to meet him. The family goes Justification of the Title to see the weekly football match. Danny Casey plays exceptionally well. Sophie’s father, Geoff and Derek The title of the lesson is justified, as ‘Going express their happiness and celebrate the victory. Places’ is a idiomatic expression meaning Sophie’s is shocked to find out that Jansie knows of ‘to be successful in one’s career.’ The lesson is about her meeting with Danny. Sophie is evasive, but she Sophie’s wish and fantasy to come out of the drudgery finds out that Jansie does not know anything about of belonging to the lower strata of society and to go the date between her and Danny. Sophie is happy places. Sophie also goes ‘places’ in her fantasies. that Geoff had kept her faith in him. She explains to Jansie that she had asked for an autograph but Message Danny could not give it as there was no paper or pen. Jansie assures her that she can be trusted. It is a good thing to dream. However, dreams should be realistic. Merely fantasising and daydreaming will Sophie waits for Danny at her favourite spot along cause disillusionment. Unless one is hardworking the canal. She tries to balance the prospects of his and persevering, mere dreams will only lead to coming with the prospects of his not coming. Her disappointment. thoughts make her sad. She thinks how she will face her family especially when no one believes what she Summary had said. Sophie once again dreams of meeting Casey at Royces. She fails to come out of her fantasy and is Going Places is a story written by A.R. Barton that overwhelmed by the memories of the match. This was discusses teenagers and their dreams. Far from the the only time she had seen Danny Casey in actuality. real world, the teenage period is all about the desire to reach the sky. Most people, at this age, have role CHAPTER IN A NUTSHELL models whom they worship. In the story, Sophie, who comes from a lower middle Unrealistic Dreams class family is a teenager who believes in her Adolescent fantasizing–hero worship–adolescent dreams. Her dream is to own the finest boutique in on–verge of adulthood often lives in world of the city. But there is no money or means by which fantasy–helps–realize what one cannot achieve in she can do it. Her friend and classmate, Jansie, is reality–easily take–hero worship hoping–make–big a practical girl well aware of the realities of life. in life like–heroes–helps one to think wide–promote She asks Sophie not to indulge in such fantasies. In creativity–forget their mundane, ordinary lives order to have a boutique, one needs a lot of money. for a while–escapism in moments of stress and 298

turmoil–when harsh realities of life dawn–becomes 3. humble living - yearns to make his family frustrating and difficult to come to terms with comfortable. life. Living in world of fantasy–cannot achieve set goals–at times–fail to differentiate between reality 4. feels helpless due to paucity of resources. and fantasy–however natural for students–to have unrealistic dreams and to identify with. 5. does not indulge into self pity. Sophie protagonist in ‘Going Places’. 6. realistic does not humor Sophie for her concocted 1. belongs to weak socio-economic background. stories. 2. doesn’t have decent house. 3. distaste - absurd situation - incongruity. 7. reminds her of their appalling living conditions. 4. escapes from her boring, working class existence. 5. Sophie - romantic nature. 8. makes the best of his life – weekly pilgrimage to 6. fond of hero worship and fantasizes meeting Irish watch united. player Danny Casey. Sophie’s Mother 7. so much obsessed with meaning-starts believing 1. bent-burden of household chores. her imagination as real. 2. oblivious to comfort-needs. 8. nobody believes her-feels disappointed. 9. In her adolescent mind “fantasy and real world 3. suffers harsh realities of life. merge to an extent - actually goes sits on bench 4. sigh symbolic of suppressed desires. by canal waiting date to show up.” 10. despondent and dejected - yet dreams on. Jansie 5. upset on hearing rows. her friend simple - sharp contrast to Sophie’s romantic nature. Type I. RefeRence To conTexT 11. practical-realistic-balanced-honest. 12. wishes Sophie becomes sensible and practical. Read the extracts given below and attempt the 13. tries to pull her back to reality-earmarked to questions that follow: work in biscuit factory. 14. Cannot be trusted with secretes-gossips. 1. “Jansie, knowing they were both earmarked for the biscuit factory, became melancholy. She Geoff wished Sophie wouldn’t say these things. When 1. Symbolizing freedom for Sophie - brother. they reached Sophie’s street Jansie said, “It’s 2. apprentice mechanic. only a few months away now, Soaf, you really 3. dresses up shabbily, carelessly-not conscious of should be sensible. They don’t pay well for shop his good looks. work, you know that, your dad would never allow 4. understands the harsh realities of life-adult. it.” “Or an actress. Now there’s real money in 5. independent-evasive-reserved-man of few works. that. Yes, and I could maybe have the boutique 6. Jansie jealous of his silence. on the side. Actresses don’t work full time, do 7. keen desire to enter into the deep recesses of they? Anyway, that or a fashion designer, you mind. know — something a bit sophisticated”. And she 8. imagines he goes to places she has never been. turned in through the open street door leaving 9. meets exotic - interesting people. Jansie standing in the rain. “If ever I come into money I’ll buy a boutique.” “Huh - if you ever 10. Sophie trusts - shares secrets with him. Geoff - come into money... if you ever come into money big fan of Danny Casey. you’ll buy us a blessed decent house to live in, thank you very much.” Danny Casey Young Irish football prodigy-brilliant player- Questions celebrity-playing for the English club United. Sophie’s hero figure. (i) Why did Jansie become melancholy? •Parent’sOutlookandLevelofIndulgence (a) Sophie dominated the conversation. (b) Sophie talked about being glamourous but Sophie’s Dad she knew they had to work in the biscuit 1. strong, very practical hardworking. factory. 2. signs of labor reflected face. (c) Sophie would not tell her any secrets and she longed to know what secrets sophie had (d) Their life ahead seemed weary and deary to her. (ii) What was Sophie daydreaming about? (iii) What did Sophie’s father want very much? (a) A decent house to live in going PlaCEs 299

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