Can the Lake Powell pipeline still happen? (2022)

This article is part of a special issue on the future of Lake Powell looking at the reservoir as overallocation and severe drought dry the Colorado River. More coverage at Countdown to dead pool: Lake Powell’s uncertain future.

Already in doubt from the West’s changing climate, a proposed pipeline across southern Utah remains bogged in a regulatory limbo that could hold up the project indefinitely.

If built, Utah’s 143-mile Lake Powell pipeline would draw up to 86,000 acre-feet of the Colorado River’s flow — depleted by drought and overuse — from the ever-shrinking Lake Powell for use in St. George and Kane County.

By the time Utah water bosses clear a stalled environmental review and secure the water rights, however, there may be no Lake Powell as we’ve known it, just a “dead pool” stacked behind Glen Canyon Dam. Complicating this bleak picture is the pipeline’s current design, which places the intakes above the lake’s future levels, leaving them high, dry and unusable if the drought continues to drain the lake.

(Rick Egan | The Salt Lake Tribune) An ore cart in the Glen Canyon Recreation Area on Tuesday, July 12, 2022.

“It seems like there’s cognitive dissonance in a proposal to divert a ton of additional water from this river, the largest new diversion of Colorado River water, at a time when the federal government is demanding the Colorado River Basin states find a way to conserve water,” said Eric Balken, executive director the Glen Canyon Institute. “The political realities of this depleting river are going to make it much more challenging” to complete the pipeline.

(Video) What could Washington County look like if the Lake Powell Pipeline project fails to be built?

For its part, Utah claims it is entitled to the water the pipeline would divert under the century-old compact among the seven states in the Colorado River basin. Utah is supposed to get 23% of the Upper Colorado Basin’s flow, the amount left after the Lower Basin states and Mexico get their share.

Established when the river’s flow exceeded 15 million acre-feet, the interstate compact calls for the Lower Basin states — Arizona, California and Nevada — to receive 7.5 million acre-feet. After Mexico and tribal nations get their cut, the Upper Basin — Utah, Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming — share what’s left. The problem is that share has been shrinking since 2000.

A $1.8 billion pipeline planned on a century-old assumption

Utah is probably already taking out its portion, according to Mark Squillace, a University of Colorado law professor and expert in natural resources law.

“My question is 23% of what? They assume it’s 23% of 7.5 million acre-feet, but we know that’s not true, that there is not 16.5 million acre-feet in the [entire] basin in a given year,” Squillace said. “We need to make some compromises, and we need to decide what exactly the Upper Basin states have left of their allocations. And it may be they don’t have anything depending on how much water is available.”

Given the crisis on the river, Squillace and others wonder if it makes sense for Utah to pull water from Lake Powell with a $1.8 billion pipeline. About $30 million has already been spent on planning and environmental reviews for the project.

While acknowledging the Colorado’s flows are down about 20% from 20 years ago, Utah water managers still say the pipeline remains a priority for the state, but it may not deliver as much water as initially intended.

“Based on current and projected hydrology in the Colorado River basin, a potential Lake Powell pipeline project must have the ability to operate at reduced capacity,” said Amy Haas, executive director of the Colorado River Authority of Utah, or CRAU. “For any planned project, this becomes a business question: how much risk is Utah willing to take to develop a new project in the event anticipated volumes of water are not available? This question is not unique to Utah — our sister states who have planned water development projects on the books are grappling with the same issue.”

Meanwhile, the project has yet to clear two major regulatory milestones — a federal environmental impact statement and a water rights “change application” — despite years of effort.

(Video) Can Mississippi water pipeline save lake Mead and lake Powell?

The water application would allow the pipeline to access the state’s rights to Green River water stored in Flaming Gorge Reservoir. It seeks to change the location of where and how the water would be used — from agricultural use by the Central Utah Project to municipal use in Washington and Kane counties. The state would then tap the Green River water hundreds of miles south near the Glen Canyon Dam.

Almost two years since a formal hearing on the application, a decision has yet to be issued. If the application is rejected, the state would have to acquire water rights from other places, potentially from Utah farmers who would be paid to forego using the water on crops.

(Rick Egan | The Salt Lake Tribune) The Glen Canyon Dam, on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, on Tuesday, Aug. 3, 2021.

Dead at dead pool

Further complicating the picture is the pipeline’s design, which potentially places the intakes above the lake’s current surface. The intakes would be unusable at times should the lake drop below Glen Canyon Dam’s outlet, which is more likely as the drought drags on with no agreement among the states to cut back their water diversions.

With the expanding crisis on the Colorado, it’s possible that the pipeline plans could adapt.

“The current design of the Lake Powell Pipeline intake is based on hydrology, water quality and geotechnical considerations,” said Michael Sanchez, a spokesman with the Utah Board of Water Resources. “This is a preliminary design and subject to change.”

(Video) Water Pipeline: What If An Aqueduct Was Built From The Great Lakes To The Southwest?

Under current designs, the intake structure would feature six 6-foot diameter tunnels bored through the Glen Canyon’s sandstone wall near the dam. The tunnels would be sited in pairs at three different elevations in 100-foot intervals, the highest starting at 3,575 feet above sea level. With intakes at varying elevations, pipeline operators would be able to adjust where they pull water depending on the lake’s level. Drawing water from the highest possible elevation would reduce pumping costs.

However, the upper intake portals would be nearly 40 feet above the lake’s current level. The other pairs of intake tunnels would open at 3,475 feet and 3,375 feet in elevation — slightly above dead pool.

The pipeline has also been under review by various federal agencies, most recently the Bureau of Reclamation, which issued a draft environmental impact statement more than two years ago. At the time, Utah officials were predicting a decision to approve the pipeline by the end of 2020.

Instead, the bureau initiated a “supplemental” EIS to explore the more pressing concerns raised by conservation groups and other states in their public comments on the draft.

Some insisted the bureau should look into whether Washington County could meet its water needs through conservation and other measures that could make the pipeline unnecessary. Meanwhile, the other six basin states implored the Interior Department not to authorize the project until after “outstanding legal and operational concerns” were resolved.

In an Aug. 9 oped, Squillace and graduate student Quinn Harper argue Colorado should consider abandoning two diversions currently under construction — the Gross Reservoir and Windy Gap projects — that would move up to 48,000 acre-feet out of the Colorado River basin to Denver, Fort Collins and other cities on Colorado’s Front Range to the east side of the Rocky Mountains and expand water storage by 167,000 acre-feet.

“These two projects suggest that Colorado is prepared to exacerbate the current crisis when the opposite response is so desperately needed,” they wrote. “Abandoning these two projects would signal that Colorado is serious about giving the Colorado River a fighting chance at survival. It might also jump-start good-faith negotiations over how Mexico, the states, and tribes might work to achieve a long-term solution to this crisis.”

He says the same logic applies to the Lake Powell pipeline.

(Video) Lake Powell Update A pipeline from Lake Powell to Washington County is taking shape

“There are things that St. George could be doing, like Las Vegas taking out all of the grass in the area,” Squillace said. “They may need to give up some of their golf courses [in Utah’s Washington County] and the amenities that they have. Maybe that’s the only fair response to the crisis that we’re facing right now.”

(Tom Wharton | The Salt Lake Tribune) Sun River Golf Course near St. George in 2017.

Growth that bets on the pipeline

Washington County’s population is expected to triple to more than 500,000 by 2065. With year-round golf and Zion National Park, the county is already a tourism hotspot with 6 million visitors a year. Proponents say the pipeline would cover 34% of the county’s projected water needs, while existing sources connected to the Virgin River would cover 28%.

The Virgin and its tributaries alone cannot satisfy the coming demand and the pipeline would diversify St. George’s supply, according to Zach Renstrom, general manager of the Washington County Water Conservancy District.

“The Colorado River has been shown to be the most reliable water source in the Western U.S.,” Renstrom told the Utah State Engineer’s Office in an October 2020 hearing regarding the water rights for the pipeline. “The Virgin fluctuates between floods and extreme drought. We need to expand the resources we have now. We welcome people into our community. We live in an amazing place down there and we want to share that with others.”

While the state remains committed to the pipeline, uncertainty now surrounds when it will be built and how much water it will move, said Candice Hasenyager, director of the Utah Division of Water Resources, the agency leading the project.

(Video) IN FOCUS Discussion: Lake Powell Pipeline

“We’re currently working with the other Colorado River Basin states on potential solutions to the water supply shortages in the Colorado River system and acknowledge that any of these discussions may impact Lake Powell pipeline’s scope and timing,” Hasenyager said. “That being said, the development and operation of the pipeline, as well as any other [Utah] project that uses Colorado River water, must occur within the constraints of Utah’s 23% of the available supply in the Colorado River Basin. We will maintain our commitment to the compact.”

Editor’s note • This story is available to Salt Lake Tribune subscribers only. Thank you for supporting local journalism.

FAQs

What will happen when Lake Powell dries up? ›

Lake Powell is hemmed by the Glen Canyon Dam, which generates hydroelectric power via the dam's water flowing through the dam back into the Colorado River. If the water levels drop to levels below the intake pipes, the water flow will cease to turn the hydroelectric turbines, and the dam won't generate any power.

Will Lake Powell fill again? ›

“Based on the best climate data that's available, it's really unlikely that this reservoir is going to be around in the decades to come," said Eric Balken with the Glen Canyon Institute. That climate data, and the fate of the lake, should concern the millions of people downstream.

Are they getting rid of Lake Powell? ›

The reality of climate change and drought will speed the demise of Lake Powell and the abandonment of Glen Canyon Dam. State and federal officials should join Save The Colorado in finding acceptable approaches to make the Colorado River through Glen Canyon wild again.”

Will Lake Powell have water in 2022? ›

Water levels at Lake Powell are currently at 3,522 feet, as of May 3, 2022. These measures are narrowly designed to reverse those dropping levels temporarily, specifically to avert the hydropower shutoff.

How long till Vegas runs out of water? ›

Southern Nevada has 8 years of water reserves as state faces water cuts from Colorado River.

What will happen to Las Vegas if Lake Mead dries up? ›

Las Vegas would be left high and dry

No one is more concerned about Lake Mead's plummeting water levels than Sin City. Las Vegas — a sprawling Nevada metropolis with a population of two million people and 40 million tourists a year — relies on Lake Mead for a shocking 90% of its water, per the National Park Service.

Is Lake Mead drying up 2022? ›

Lake Mead is shrinking

But, as of July 31, 2022, Lake Mead's water level has dropped to 1,040.92 feet (317.3 meters), continuing a 22-year downward trend. The retreating lake is revealing things hidden underwater for decades.

What would it take to refill Lake Powell? ›

About 4.5 million/gals a second flow past that structure on the Mississippi. As mentioned, New Orleans has a problem with that much water anyway, so let's divert 250,000 gallons/sec to Lake Powell, which currently has a shortage of 5.5 trillion gallons. This would take 254 days to fill.

How long will the Hoover Dam last? ›

While the dam is expected to last for centuries, engineers predict the structure could last for more than 10,000 years, surpassing most remnants of human civilization if humans were to disappear from the earth. However, they also predict the dam's turbines without human intervention would shut down within two years.

How long until Lake Mead is empty? ›

But it predicts that Lake Mead will continue to plummet through 2025 and dip into “dead pool” territory multiple times over the next 50 years.

Would draining Lake Powell fill Lake Mead? ›

The lake would drain downstream through the Grand Canyon and end up in Lake Mead, which is also at its lowest level in history. The water would fill Lake Mead, which is the last stop before it's diverted to the Southwestern states.

Will Lake Mead fill up again? ›

Both Lake Powell and Lake Mead reservoirs are half empty, and scientists predict that they will probably never fill again. The water supply of more than 22 million people in the three Lower Basin states is in jeopardy. The region is also facing an environmental crisis.

Can they save Lake Mead? ›

Lake Mead and the Lower Basin still have the ability to recover this water, but it will be left in Lake Powell to protect that reservoir. Lake Mead is also at record low levels, but the infrastructure is not currently at risk. With the decreased release, the elevation of Lake Mead will drop this year by about 8 feet.

When was the last time Lake Powell was full? ›

Filling and operations

Upon completion of Glen Canyon Dam on September 13, 1963, the Colorado River began to back up, no longer being diverted through the tunnels. The newly flooded Glen Canyon formed Lake Powell. Sixteen years elapsed before the lake filled to the 3,700 feet (1,100 m) level on June 22, 1980.

Is Glen Canyon Dam still producing power? ›

With a total capacity of 1,320 megawatts, Glen Canyon Powerplant produces around five billion kilowatt-hours of hydroelectric power annually which is distributed by the Western Area Power Administration to Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Nebraska.

What state has the most drinking water? ›

Hawaii ranks No. 1 for drinking water quality and No. 2 for urban air quality, leading to its top spot in the natural environment category. Learn more about Hawaii.

Is Arizona running out of water? ›

Will we run out of water?" The answer is no. We're prepared. That's because SRP, Valley cities, the Central Arizona Project (CAP) and the Arizona Department of Water Resources are working together to track drought conditions and plan for a reliable water future.

What happens if Hoover Dam dries up? ›

Such an event would have an enormous impact on San Diego County where half of the region's total water supply relies on the Colorado River. Other areas of the Southwest could also be severely affected. Regional agricultural use of water could be eliminated, impacting the nation's food supply.

What state uses the most water from Lake Mead? ›

California, it gets the largest share. 4.4 million acre-feet of water is available to California. Arizona gets about 2.8 million acre-feet. The country of Mexico, 1.5 million and us right here in Southern Nevada we get 300,000 acre-feet,” Mack said.

What will happen if Las Vegas runs out of water? ›

The resource Nevada is most likely to run out of is power. If the water drops too low, the dam would stop producing electricity, some of which goes to Nevada. As the state foolishly increases its dependence on unreliable renewable energy, that could contribute to future power shortages.

Is the Hoover Dam still curing? ›

Is Hoover Dam Concrete Still Curing? In short, yes – the concrete is still curing, harder and harder every year even in 2017 some 82 years after the construction of Hoover Dam was completed in 1935.

Has the rain in Las Vegas helped Lake Mead? ›

Recent rain has helped Lake Mead rise 18 inches in the past two weeks, an uncommon summer development. The wettest Las Vegas Valley monsoon season in a decade likely isn't the only reason behind it, but Lake Mead has risen more than 18 inches during recent area rainfall.

How long did Lake Mead take to fill? ›

Lake Elevation

Lake Mead began filling in late 1934 and the average daily surface elevations from 1 February 1935, when elevation data began to be collected, through 2009 are shown in Figure 2. The reservoir did not reach 1,045 ft above msl, the elevation of the upper outlet, until 1 May 1937.

How many bodies were found in Lake Mead so far? ›

Since the lake was created in the 1930s, around 300 people have drowned in the reservoir.

Will Lake Mead drop below 1000 feet? ›

In addition to the two-year projections, the government updated its five-year projections for lake levels. Those show a 57 percent chance that Lake Mead will be below 1,020 feet by August 2027. The forecast also predicts a 17 percent chance — about 1 in 5 — that the lake will drop below 1,000 feet.

Is the Colorado River drying up? ›

The Colorado River is drying up — but basin states have 'no plan' on how to cut water use. Brittany Peterson/AP Photo The Colorado River flows at Horseshoe Bend in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Wednesday, June 8, 2022, in Page, Ariz.

Can we pipe water to Lake Mead? ›

Can Mississippi water pipeline save lake Mead and lake Powell?

What would happen to Vegas if the Hoover Dam broke? ›

What would happen to Las Vegas is a matter of even greater conjecture. It wouldn't be flooded, since the water would start draining southeast of the city and rush south down the Colorado canyon away from Las Vegas Valley. However, Las Vegas gets all of its water from Lake Mead, so the city would quickly dry up.

Is there a door in the middle of the Hoover Dam? ›

Clark opened a door and nearly launched himself off the dam. In reality, that door actually goes to a bathroom. As for the rumor about bodies being buried in the concrete. “Not at all,” Hendrickson said.

What cities would flood if the Hoover Dam broke? ›

The towns include Laughlin, Nevada; Needles, California; Lake Havasu, Arizona; and even as far south as Yuma, Arizona, and San Luis Rey, Colorado, a border community in Mexico. There are also three Native American reservations along the Colorado River that would be affected.

What states are running out of water? ›

The 7 States That Are Running Out Of Water

These states include: Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, Kansas, New Mexico and Nevada as well. So what does this mean for us?

How deep was Lake Mead at its deepest? ›

At maximum capacity, Lake Mead is 112 miles (180 km) long, 532 feet (162 m) at its greatest depth, has a surface elevation of 1,229 feet (375 m) above sea level, has a surface area of 247 square miles (640 km2), and contains 28.23 million acre-feet (34,820,000 megaliters) of water.

Why is Lake Mead dropping so fast? ›

A grueling drought in the American west has depleted the lake, a crucial water source for 25 million people, drying out tributaries, threatening hydropower production and closing boat ramps at the popular recreation site. It is now at its lowest level since the lake was being filled in 1937.

What is the future of Lake Mead? ›

2023 Operations of Lake Powell and Lake Mead

Given the 23-year ongoing historic drought and low runoff conditions in the Colorado River Basin, downstream releases from Glen Canyon and Hoover Dams – which created Lakes Powell and Mead – will be reduced again in 2023 due to declining reservoir levels.

How many years did it take to fill Lake Powell? ›

Q: How long did it take for Lake Powell to fill? A: 17 years - Lake Powell started filling in 1963 and reached full pool for the first time in 1980.

When was the last time Lake Mead was full? ›

Water levels at Lake Mead dropped from 1,204 feet in June 2000 to 1,043 feet in June 2022, according to federal data. The last time the reservoir approached full capacity was in the summer of 1983 and 1999, nearing 1,220 feet.

How much has Lake Mead dropped since 2000? ›

As a result, since 2000 Lake Mead water surface elevation has dropped over 143 feet, going from full to only 38 percent of the total storage capacity. The lower lake level impacts everything from launching boats to lake ecosystems. The net water loss is nearly six trillion gallons of water.

Are the great lakes drying up? ›

The Great Lakes share a surprising connection with Wisconsin's small lakes and aquifers — their water levels all rise and fall on a 13-year cycle, according to a new study.

How deep is Lake Mead at the dam? ›

Visit Lake Mead and Hoover Dam

When Lake Mead is at its fullest, it boasts 759 miles of shoreline, is 532 feet deep, has 247 square miles of surface and astounding 28 millions-acre feet of water.

What is the solution to Lake Mead? ›

On Aug. 16, 2022, the federal government declared a tier two water reduction on the Colorado River. This will limit the amount of water Southern Nevada will be allowed to withdraw from Lake Mead beginning in January 2023.

What happens when Lake Powell reaches Dead Pool? ›

The United Nations issued a warning on Tuesday that the water levels in Lake Mead and Lake Powell are at their lowest ever and are getting perilously close to reaching "dead pool status." Such a status means that the water levels are so low that water can't flow downstream to power hydroelectric stations.

What is Deadpool at Lake Powell? ›

Dead pool status for Lake Powell is at 3,370ft, however another dangerous benchmark looms even closer. At 3,490ft - 32ft below this year's low - the lake would stop producing electricity from its hydroelectric power stations.

What is the fate of Lake Powell? ›

Within the first five years of the drought, Lake Powell and Lake Mead declined to below 50 percent of capacity. Following two extremely dry periods of runoff in 2020 and 2021, the reservoirs have hit the lowest levels since they were originally filled.

What would happen if Glen Canyon Dam stopped working? ›

If the lake drops too low to produce power, that route is cut off. Water would instead be released through the outlet works, which are untested in extended use as the primary water delivery option. Glen Canyon's power customers are also in a pinch.

At what level will Lake Powell stop producing electricity? ›

In March, water levels fell below 3,525 feet – considered a critical buffer to protect hydropower – for the first time. If the lake drops just another 32ft, the dam will no longer be able to generate power for the millions who rely on it.

At what level will Lake Mead stop producing power? ›

The water elevation in Lake Mead is around 1,040 feet above sea level. At 950 feet, Hoover Dam will be at its lowest point to be able produce power, according to the US Bureau of Reclamation. Without the dam's electricity, Southwest energy suppliers will have to look to fossil fuel energy to fill the void.

What happens if Lake Mead and Lake Powell dry up? ›

Regional agricultural use of water could be eliminated, impacting the nation's food supply. Skyrocketing costs for urban users of what little water and power is still available could cause mass migrational population shifts. Real estate values could plummet.

What effect would removing the dams have on wildlife? ›

Obsolete dams can have a wide range of impacts on the environment and local communities, including loss of biodiversity, blocking fish migrations, trapping sediment and nutrients that maintain habitat and estuary health, and altering flow patterns that drive the productivity of downstream floodplains and wetlands.

How is drought affecting Lake Powell? ›

In March, water levels fell below 3,525 feet – considered a critical buffer to protect hydropower – for the first time. If the lake drops just another 32ft, the dam will no longer be able to generate power for the millions who rely on it. Such a calamity might not be far off.

At what level does Lake Powell stop producing electricity? ›

Hydropower generation will likely shut down when Lake Powell's elevation drops below 3,490 feet.

How long till Lake Mead is empty? ›

But it predicts that Lake Mead will continue to plummet through 2025 and dip into “dead pool” territory multiple times over the next 50 years.

Will Lake Mead dry up? ›

A grueling drought in the American west has depleted the lake, a crucial water source for 25 million people, drying out tributaries, threatening hydropower production and closing boat ramps at the popular recreation site. It is now at its lowest level since the lake was being filled in 1937.

What will happen if Las Vegas runs out of water? ›

The resource Nevada is most likely to run out of is power. If the water drops too low, the dam would stop producing electricity, some of which goes to Nevada. As the state foolishly increases its dependence on unreliable renewable energy, that could contribute to future power shortages.

Do dams do more harm than good? ›

While dams can benefit society, they also cause considerable harm to rivers. Dams have depleted fisheries, degraded river ecosystems, and altered recreational opportunities on nearly all of our nation's rivers.

How long does it take to tear down a dam? ›

The dam removal process will take 2 ½ to 3 years because 15 million cubic yards sediment have collected behind the dams; the release of this sediment must be carefully controlled to protect a downstream fish hatchery, the Lower Elwha reservation, and the Port Angeles drinking water supply.

Why did they remove the Happy Isles dam? ›

Removal has allowed for natural channel grades and hydrologic processes along this segment of river. Removal also eliminated the potential uncontrolled collapse of the dam, which had been weakened by the 1997 flood.

Is Utah running out of water? ›

Perhaps most alarmingly, Salt Lake City will soon not have enough water to support its population: Demand is set to exceed supply in 2040. Utah is the fastest-growing state in the US, and the capital region's population is projected to increase almost 50% by 2060, adding another 2.2 million people.

What is the fate of Lake Powell? ›

Within the first five years of the drought, Lake Powell and Lake Mead declined to below 50 percent of capacity. Following two extremely dry periods of runoff in 2020 and 2021, the reservoirs have hit the lowest levels since they were originally filled.

When was the last time Lake Powell was at full capacity? ›

The last time the lake was full was in 1999, according to Eric Balken, who runs the Glen Canyon Institute. The institute wants to restore the canyon that was flooded in the 1960s to create Lake Powell, the nation's second largest reservoir.

How long will it take to refill Lake Powell? ›

This would take 254 days to fill.

Can the Hoover Dam still produce electricity? ›

Presently, Hoover Dam can produce over 2,000 megawatts of capacity and a yearly average generation of 4.5 billion kilowatt hours to serve the annual electrical needs of nearly 8 million people in Arizona, southern California, and southern Nevada.

How Long Will Hoover Dam be able to produce electricity? ›

Hendrix said the dam can continue normal power production until Lake Mead drops to 950 feet — about 100 feet lower that its current level. And even then, the dam can still generate power, but the turbines that have not been upgraded will be operating in the “rough” zone.

Videos

1. The Town Trying to Pump Billions of Gallons of Water to Their Desert Community
(VICE News)
2. The Burdensome Economics and Policy Behind the Lake Powell Pipeline
(UCR School of Public Policy)
3. A water pipeline from the Mississippi River to the west?
(Time Bomb)
4. As the West bakes, Utah forges ahead with water pipeline
(The Digital Reporter)
5. We could fill Lake Powell in less than a year with an aqueduct from Mississippi River|Drought Update
(The Digital Reporter)
6. The Truth Behind Lake Powell's Water Levels
(Time Bomb)

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